Greener Journal of Social Sciences

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Lagmoj et al

Greener Journal of  Social Sciences Vol. 3 (9), pp. 447-457, November 2013

  ISSN: 2276-7800 © 2011 GJSS

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 100613886


Defining the Ecotourism Carrying Capacity of Langeroud City

(Case Study: Khorma Forest)


1*Masoumeh Amiry Lagmoj,

2Dr. Abdolkarim Keshacarz Shokry,

3Dr. Seyed Armin Hashemi, 4Dr. Hasam Karim Zadegan


1Ms.c Environment, Department of Environment, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran.

3Department of Forestry, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Lahijan, Iran.

2,4Department of Environment, Lahijan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Llahijan, Iran.


*Corresponding Author’s Email: masoumehamiri40 @


Since the early 1970s, tourism has been mentioned as a (smoke free industry) which mostly focuses on using and development of natural and cultural resources of the countries. Outdoor recreational use of the forest provides an appropriate strategy to conserve them because outdoor recreation issue in connection with the forest has been intermingled with conservation. Depending on the properties of each area, it has taken a specific status. If tourism is left uncontrolled, in addition to destruction of environment, it will threaten the identity and cultural bases of local societies. Taking this important issue will make inevitable the necessity to manage the influences of visitor's behaviour to control and adjust the adverse effect of tourism. Also, if forest lands lack a suitable pattern for tourism management, this will cause these areas to lose their characteristics on a wide range. Each area has a limited capacity to attract the tourists and related activities. These limitations are frequently formulated through integrating the carrying capacity in the frame work of sustainable development theory of tourism. Meanwhile, Khorma forest in Guilan province, Langeroud city , Otaghvar District, OItaghvar rural district in Khorma village with 2801.5 h1 area where study area is part of lands of Dehjan forestry plan, it is located in parcel 204 , series 2 , Rooreh rood catchments area. Dimension of study area was 1.9 h1 of khorma forest selected as case study. 
The aim of this study is to define the ecological capacity of the area for tourism, using GIS Arc 9.2 regions with 15387 m2 (84%) identified as intensive use zone , regions with 1503 m2 (8%) as conservation zone and regions with 246 m2 (6%) as inappropriate zone with each area zoned according to the carrying capacity. Defining the consequences and effects of tourism activities and tourism carrying capacity in Khorma forest is performed to respond the sustainability issue in tourism practice in this forest. Required data was collected through field visits and interview of the local people, tourists and preserve guards in the area which included the use of a questionnaire consisted of 30 questions. It was distributed among and completed by 150 visitors in April and May 1392. According to International Union of Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, using tourism carrying capacity (TCC), Tourism Carrying Capacity was evaluated in 3ways, This are Physical Carrying Capacity (PCC), Real Carrying Capacity (RCC) and Effective Carrying Capacity (ECC). 
According to the results of carrying capacity formals, Physical Carrying Capacity in Khorma forest is 3712 persons/ day while Real Carrying Capacity , considering limiting factors including the number of very hot days and the number of wet days, is 2001 persons/ day.
Effective carrying capacity, taking the management capabilities including the number of manpower and the budget, 69 persons / day was calculated for Khorma forest. According to the results of the stuffy on the Khorma forest, effective carrying capacity is in low range due to lack of required facilities and infrastructures as well as manpower for management and providing tourism services for tourists. It is worth mentioning that effective carrying capacity can be improved through suitable planning to provide the required infrastructures, facilities and services and skilled man power. 

Key words: Khorma forest (physical, effective, real) carrying capacity, ecotourism, tourism.


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