Greener Journal of Social Sciences

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Zingi and Chitongo

Greener Journal of  Social Sciences Vol. 3 (9), pp. 434-446, November 2013

  ISSN: 2276-7800 © 2011 GJSS

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 102413927


Livelihood Resilience Strategies in the face of Water Scarcity: The case of Kenzamba Ward 17 of Makonde District


1Zingi Godwin K. and Chitongo Leonard*2


1High School Teacher in Rural Development.

2Lecturer in the Department of Rural Development and Resettlement, Great Zimbabwe University, P.O. Box 1235 Masvingo.


Email: 1gzingi @, Tel: +263775 225 215


*Corresponding Author’s Email: vachitongo @, Tel: +263773 292 343.


The study sought to assess the importance of livelihood resilience strategies in the face of water scarcity in the Kenzamba ward 17 of Makonde District in Mashonaland West Province. Kenzamba is a water stressed area which falls under agro-ecological region four with total annual rainfall ranging between 450-600mm. It is characterized by poor sandy soils which makes it difficult for agricultural activities to take place. There is glaring evidence of environmental degradation. People have diverted into resilience strategies such as rural trade, conservation agriculture, migration as well as gold panning activities as a buffer against contingency and uncertainties caused by water scarcity. The research approach included both qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data from respondents as well as key informant interviews, Secondary sources were also utilized, this included literature review from related studies from other authors. The study population according to [CSO 2002] was 5995 people from 1196 households within 28 villages. A sample of 30 respondents was selected using stratified random sampling. The data which was collected from the research was presented in tables, pie charts and graphs. The researcher concluded that the people of Kenzamba have embraced conservation farming in order to increase yields from cereals and maize, natural resource exploitation such as gold panning, petty trading, saving club and repair work as in non agricultural activities. The researcher recommends that the government play a pivotal role in creating an enabling environment for creation of water points given the distance travelled by people in search of water resources especially during dry periods. 

Keywords: Livelihood Diversification, Sustainable Livelihood, Resilience, Vulnerability, Human capabilities, Stress,

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