Greener Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology Research

Open Access

 


Subscribe to 

our monthly News letters
Click





Impact Calculation




Akindele and Adejumobi

Greener Journal of Science, Engineering and Technological Research Vol. 6 (3), pp. 070-077, November 2016.

ISSN: 2276-7835 © 2016 Greener Journals

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 052416098


(DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJSETR.2016.3.052416098)

 

Mitigating the use of Electric Generators: An Operative Model of Distance and Greening Buffers

 

*Akindele O. Akin and Adejumobi DO

 

Department of Urban and Regional Planning, LadokeAkintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria.


Abstract


Against the background of the incessant electric power failure and the extensive use of electric power generator, the study investigates the use of electric power generators; so as to proffer ecologically sustainable mitigation strategies. The relative incidence of generator use was appraised. Residents coping mechanism as well as its efficacy were also assessed. Across the three recognizable residential densities of the city having 20 political wards, 50 urban blocks (10%) were sampled. A questionnaire was administered to 511 respondents using a multi stage approach. Noise dosimeter was used to measure the noise level. Air samplers were also used to assess the magnitude of air pollution across the sampled units. X2, T-test and one-way ANOVA were used to explain the variation in the incidence of generator use and to compare the average concentration of pollution with the WHO tolerable standards. A high level incidence of power outage (81%) was observed to have encouraged a high incidence (78.6%) of electric generator use with X2, T-test showing a significant difference in the noise levels comparing distance intervals to the generator at α=.05. Distance was observed to abate noise and air quality was better with greens at 1.916. The study thus recommends a distance and green buffer to mitigate the negative effects of electric power generator use.

 

Keywords: Electric power generator, basic utility, carbon capture, pollution, livability, Nigeria.

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]


References


Afolayan,Jide, TokunboOlajumoke, FrederickAmadasun& Theodore Isesele (2014); Knowledge andAttitude of Nigerian personnel working at Federal Medical Centre in Nigeria on Carbon Monoxide Poisoning from ElectricalPower Generators, South African Family Practice, 56:3, 178-181, DOI: 10.1080/20786204.2014.936662 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20786204.2014.936662

 

Ajiboye B. O, Salawu S.O, OkezieB, Oyinloye B.E, Ojo A. O, Onikanmi S. A, Oso A.O, Asoso O.S and Obafemi T.O (2014); ‘Mitigating Potential and Anti-Oxidant Properties of Leea-Guineensis Against Dichlorovos-induced Toxicity in Wistar Rats’.Journal of Toxicology and Environmental health Sciences Vol 6, No 7 pp132-146

 

Berglund, B; Lindvall T, Schwela D, GohKT (1999): World Health Organization: Guidelines for Community Noise. World Health Organization.

 

Blumenthal I. (2001) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Journal of Sociological Medicine 2001;94(6):270–272.

 

Burney RE, Wu SC, Nemiroff MJ. (1982) Mass Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Clinical Effects and Results of Treatment in 184 Victims. Ann Emerg Med. 1982;11(8):394–399.11.

 

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2007). Unintentional Non-fire Related Carbon Monoxide Exposures in the United States. 1999-2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56(50):1309–1312.

 

Chambers, N., Simmons, C. and Wackernagel, M. (2000):Sharing Nature's Interest: Ecological Footprints as an Indicator of Sustainability. Earthscan, London ISBN 1-85383-739-3 (see also http://www.ecologicalfootprint.com)

 

Donney Albert (2011); ‘Carbon Monoxide’ http://coconundra.info/CO_levels.php

 

Fellmann Jerome D, Getis Author and Getis Judith (2010); Human Geography’ Updated 6th Edition. http://www.mhhee.com/Introduction-Geography-Author-Getie/dp/0073522880

 

Gasman JD, Varon J, Gardner JP (1990).Revenge of the barbecue grill.Carbon monoxide poisoning. West J Med. 1990;153(6):656–657.

 

Guy KM, Pimlott JK, Rogers M, Cross M. (1999);‘The new CO and smoke inhalation advisory service in the UK Treatment of poisoning’. Indoor Built Environment. 1999;8:199–202

 

Heimbach DM, Waeckerie JF (1988). Inhalation Injuries.Ann Emergency Medicine.1988;17(12):1316–1320.

 

Ising H, Babisch W, Kruppa B (1999): Noise-Induced Endocrine Effects and Cardiovascular Risk. Noise Health1 (4): 37–48.

 

Kirby Alex (2004,):         Pollution: A life and death issue. BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/4086809.stm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 

 

Kryter, Karl D. (1994): The handbook of hearing and the effects of noise: physiology, psychology, and public health. Boston: Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-427455-2.

 

Lopez-Mirabal H.R, Thorsen M, Kielland-Brandt M.C, Toledano M.B, Winther J.R (2007); Cytoplasmic Glutathione Redox Status Determines Survival upon Exposure to the Thiol-Oxidant 4-4’dipyridyldisulphate. FEMS Yeast Res Volume 7 No 3, pp 391-403. www.yeastgenome.org/references/s0001204851/overview

 

McDonald EM, Shields W, Frattaroli S, et al. (2010) Carbon Monoxide Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices in Urban Households. Inj Prev. 2010;16(s1):A175.

 

Meredith TJ, Vale JA, Proudfoot A T (1987) Poison caused by inhalational agents. In: Weatherall DJ, Ledigham JGG, Warren D, editors. Oxford Text book of Medicine. 2nded. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1987;6:53–59

 

Monfreda, C., M. Wackernagel and D. Deumling (2004):  Establishing national natural capital accounts based on detailed Ecological Footprint and biological capacity assessments.  Land Use Policy 21 (2004): 231-246.

 

Niemann, H. (2006):  Noise-induced annoyance and morbidity results from the pan-European LARES study. Noise Health8 (31): 63–79. doi:10.4103/1463-1741.33537. PMID 17687182.

 

OlawaleUsmanDairo and AdeniyiTajudeenOlayanju (2012); Effects of Initial Catalyst Amount on Production of Bio-Diessel from ‘jathropacurcas’ Using In-Situ TechiqueTransnational Journal of Science and Technology Vol 2 No 6.

 

Oyedepo S. O. (2012) Energy and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: the Way Forward. Energy, Sustainability and Society. 2012;2:15.

 

Passchier-Vermeer, W. and W.F. Passchier (March 2000): Noise exposure and public health  Environment Health Perspectives108 (1): 123–131. doi:10.2307/3454637. JSTOR 3454637.PMC 1637786.PMID 10698728

 

Pichot, P. (1992):    Noise, sleep and behavior. Bulletin de l'Academienationale de médecine176 (3): 393–9. 

 

Saadu, A.A., R.O Onyeonwu, E.O. Ayorinde and F.O. Ogisi, 1998:  Road Traffic Noise Survey and Analyses in some major urban centers in Nigeria Noise Control En. J,. 46:146-158

 

Schmidt, Charles W. (January 2005):   Noise that Annoys: Regulating Unwanted Sound. Environmental Health Perspectives113 (1): A42–A44. doi:10.1289/ehp.113-a42

 

Seleye-Fubara D, Etebu EN, Athan B. (2011) Pathology of Deaths from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Portharcourt: an Autopsy Study of 75 cases. Niger J Med. 2011;20(3):337–340

 

Stansfeld S, Haines M, Brown B. (2000):  Noise and health in the urban environment. Rev Environ Health. 2000 Jan–Jun;15(1-2):43–82.

 

Staples, Susan L. (Feb 1996):Human response to environmental noise: Psychological Research and public policy. American Psychologist51 (2): 143–150. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.51.2.143. PMID 8746149

 

Talbott E, Helmkamp J, Matthews K, Kuller L, Cottington E, Redmond G.(1985): Occupational noise exposure, noise-induced hearing loss, and the epidemiology of high blood pressure. Am J Epidemiol.1985 Apr;121(4):501–514.

 

Touger M, Gallagher EJ, Tyrrel J (1995). Relationship between venous and arterial Carboxyhaemoglobin level in Patients with Suspected Carbon Monoxide Poisoning. Ann Emerg Med. 1995;25(4):481–483.

 

UN-Habitat (2011); ‘Cities and Climate Change’ Global Report on Human Settlements. NW Washington DC: Earthscan LLC USA

 

Wackernagel, Mathis and W. Rees.(1996):  Our Ecological Footprint. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society Publishers, 1996.

 

Waldo R Tobler (1930); ‘A Formulation of the Concept of Spatial Correlation’ www.jstor.org/stable/3693985

 

Wakefield, Julie (2002):    Learning the Hard Way. Environmental Health Perspectives110(6).

 

Westman JC, Walters JR.(1981):   Noise and stress: a comprehensive approach. Environ Health Perspect. 1981 Oct;41:291–309.

 

The World Bank, (2004), http://www.worldbank.org/
United Nations Development Programme, 2004 http://www.undp.org/.

 

Walker T, Hay A. (1999) Carbon Monoxide Poisoning is still an under recognised Problem. BMJ. 1999;319(7212):1082–1083.