Greener Journal of Science, Engineering and Technological Research Vol. 7 (1), pp. 001-020, April 2017.
ISSN: 2276-7835 © 2017 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 031817038
Review on Evaporative Cooling Systems
Okafor Victor Chijioke
School of Engineering and Engineering Technology, Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 1526, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria.
A review of evaporative cooling systems for air conditioning is presented. The concept, applications, and the factors affecting it were reported. The evaporative cooling systems are grouped into three broad categories, namely, the direct evaporative cooling system, the indirect evaporative cooling system and the combined evaporative cooling system. Also, studies aimed at determining the cooling pad selection and modelling of heat and mass transfer, overall energy balance, direct and indirect cooling was reviewed. Generally, evaporative cooling can be specially applied in dry and hot climates and it’s a simple and least energy consumptive way of achieving air conditioning.
Keyword: evaporative cooling, direct, indirect, pads, models, review
Abbouda, KS and EA Almuhanna 2012. Improvement of Evaporative Cooling System Efficiency in Greenhouses. Int. J Latest Trends Agr. Food Sci. 2(2):83-89
Aldous, MB, Holberg, CJ, Wright, AL, Martinez, FD and LM Taussig, 1996. Group Health Medical Associates, 1996. Evaporative cooling and other home factors and lower respiratory tract illness during the first year of life. American Journal of Epidemiology. 143(5):423–430.
Al-Helal, IM 2001. A survey study of cooling pads clogging problem for greenhouses and poultry buildings in central region of Saudi Arabia. Research Bulletin, Agricultural research center. 105.
Al-Sulaiman, F 2002. Evaluation of the performance of local fibers in evaporative cooling. Energy conversion and management.2267–2273.
Alodan, MA and AA Al-Faraj, 2005. Design and Evaluation of Galvanized Metal Sheets as Evaporative Cooling Pads. J. King Saud Univ., Agric. Sci. 18 (1):9-18.
Anyanwu, EE 2004. Design and measured performance of a porous evaporative cooler for preservation of fruits and vegetables. Energy conversion and management, 45(13):2187-2195.
Appropedia 2016. Evaporative cooling. Retrieved from: http://www.appropedia.org/Evaporative_cooling (Accessed on 23rd February, 2016).
ASHRAE. Handbook 2003. Evaporative cooling applications; Applications, Atlanta: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Inc. 55.1 – 55.3.
Bartzanas, T, Kittas, C and T Boulard, 2004. Effect of vent arrangement on windward ventilation of a tunnel greenhouse. Biosystems Engineering. 88(4): 479-490.
Boukhanouf, R, Alharbi, A, Ibrahim, GH and M Kanzari, 2014. Investigation of a Sub-wet Bulb Temperature Evaporative Cooler for Buildings. Sustainable Building Conference, Coventry University. Journal of Clean Energy Technologies. 2(3):221-225.
Boulard, T and S Wang 2002. Experimental and numerical studies on the heterogeneity of crop transpiration in a plastic tunnel. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture. 34: 173-190.
Bowen, AB 1981. Cooling achievement in the gardens of Moghul India. Proceedings of the International Passive and Hybrid Cooling Conference, Miami Beach, FL.
Bucklin, RA , Henley, RW. and DB McConnell, 1993. Fan and pad greenhouse evaporative cooling systems. Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Bucklin, RA, Leary, JD, McConnell, DB and EG Wilkerson 2016. Fan and Pad Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Systems. Retrieved From: https://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pdffiles/AE/AE06900.pdf (Accessed on 23rd May, 2016).
Camargo, JR, Ebinuma, CD and S Cardoso, 2003. A Mathematical Model for Direct Evaporative Cooling Air Conditioning System. Universidade de Taubaté Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica Rua Daniel Danelli, 12060-440; Taubaté; São Paulo; Brasil. 4:30-34.
Camargo, JR , Ebinuma, CD and Silveira, JL 2005. Experimental performance of a direct evaporative cooler operating during summer in a Brazilian city, International Journal of Refrigeration.28:1124–1132.
Chinenye, NM 2011. “Development of clay evaporative cooler for fruits and vegetables preservation.” Agriculture Engineering International: CIGR Journal. 13: 1-6.
Costelloe, B and D Finn, 2003. Indirect evaporative cooling potential in air-water systems in temperate climates. Energy and Buildings. 35(6):573-591.
Dagtekin, M, Karaca, C. and Y Yildiz, 2009. Performance characteristics of a pad evaporative cooling system in a broiler house in a Mediterranean climate. Biosystems Eng. 103: 100-104.
Dai, YJ and K Sumathy, 2002. Theoretical study on a cross-flow direct evaporative cooler using honeycomb paper as packing material. Applied Thermal Eng. 22:1417-1430.
Dowdy, JA, Reid, RL and ET Handy, 1986. Experimental determination of heat and mass transfer coefficients in aspen pads. ASHRAE Trans. 92: 60-70.
Douglas, S, Kenneth, OO and PA Melvin 2011. Performance evaluation of a medium size charcoal cooler installed in the field for temporary storage of horticultural produce. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal: 13(1)
Erens, PJ and AA Dreyer, 1993. Modelling of indirect evaporative air cooler. Heat and Mass Transfer. 36:17-26.
Facao, J and AC Oliveira, 2000. Thermal Behaviour of Closed Wet Cooling Towers for Use with Chilled Ceilings, Applied Thermal Engineering, 20(13):1225-1236.
FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization 1989. Prevention of Post-Harvest Food Losses: Fruits, Vegetables and Root Crops, , Rome.
FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization 1995. Small-scale Post-harvest Handling Practices. A manual for horticulture crops. Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/wairdocs/x540e/x5403e00.htm (Accessed on 23rd September, 2014).
Foster, R 1999. Presentation at El Paso/Las Cruces ASHRAE seminar. El Paso, Texas, USA.
Fouda, A and Z Melikan, 2011. A simplified model for analysis of heat and mass transfer in a direct evaporative cooler. Applied Thermal Engineering.31:932-936.
Gan, G, Riffat, SB, Shao, L and P. Doherty, 2001. Application of CFD to Closed-Wet Cooling Towers, Applied Thermal Engineering, 21(1):79-92
Gomez, EV, Rey Martinez, FC and AT Gonzalez, 2010. The phenomenon of evaporative cooling from a humid surface as an alternative method for air-conditioning. Intern. Journal of Energy and Environment (IJEE).1(1):69-96. Retrieved from: http://www.ijee.ieefoundation.org/vol1/IJEE_05_v1n1.pdf (Accessed on 18th September, 2014)
Hasan, A and G Gan, 2002. Simplification of Analytical Models and Incorporation with CFD for the Performance Prediction of Closed Wet Cooling Towers, International Journal of Energy Research, 26(13):1161-1174.
Heidarinejad, G, Bozorgmehr, M, Delfani, S and J Esmaeelian, 2009. Experimental investigation of two-stage indirect/direct evaporative cooling system in various climatic conditions, Building and Environment. 44: 2073–2079.
Heidarinejad, G and M Bozorgmehr, 2008. Heat and mass transfer modelling of two stage indirect/direct evaporative air coolers. ASHRAE; Thailand Chapter Journal.
Holland, R. 2010. Refrigeration for Developing Countrie. Practical Action, Bourton, United Kingdom.
Holman, JP 1997. Heat Transfer. Revised Edition. McGraw Hill Book Company.
Hsu, ST, Lavan, Z and WM Worek, 1989. Optimization of wet-surface heat exchangers. Energy, 14:757-770.
Igbeka, JC and TO Olurin, 2009. Performance Evaluation of Absorbent Materials in Evaporative Cooling System for the Storage of Fruits and Vegetables. Int. J. Food Eng. 5(3):2.
Jain, D 2007. “Development and testing of two-stage evaporative cooler.” Building and Environment. 42:2549-2554.
Kettleborough, CF and CS Hsieh, 1983. The Thermal Performance of the Wet Sur face Plastic Plate Heat Exchanger Used as an Indirect Evaporative Cooler, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 105:366-373.
Khalid, A. 2008. Experimental Investigation and Mathematical Modelling of a Low Energy Consuming Hybrid Desiccant Cooling System for the Hot and Humid Areas of Pakistan. PhD thesis, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi.
Kinney, L. 2004. New Evaporative Cooling Systems: An Emerging Solution for Homes in Hot Dry Climates with Modest Cooling Loads. Midwest Research Institute National Renewable Energy Laboratory Division, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved from: www.builditsolar.com/Projects/Cooling/Evaporative_Cooling_Systems.pdf (Accessed on 16th September, 2014).
Kheirabadi, M 1991. Iranian cities: formation and development. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. ISBN 978-0-292-72468-6.
Koca, RW, Hughes, WC and Christianson, LL 1991. Evaporative cooling pads: Test procedure and evaluation. Journal of Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 7: 485-90.
Kouchakzadeh, A and A Brati, 2013. The Evaluation of bulk Charcoal as Greenhouse Evaporative Cooling Pad. Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal, 15(2):188－193.
Krigger, J and C Dorsi, C 2004. Residential Energy: Cost Savings and Comfort for Existing Buildings (4th ed.). Saturn Resource Management.
Landsberg, JI, White, B, and MR Thorpe, 1979. Computer analysis of the efficiency of evaporative cooling for glasshouses in a high energy environments. Journal of Agriculture Engineering Research.24:29-39.
La Roche, PM 2012. “Passive Cooling Systems,” in Carbon Neutral Architectural Design, Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. 7(7.4):242-258.
Lertsatitthanakorn, C, Rerngwongwitaya, S and S Soponronnarit, 2006. “Field Experiments and Economic Evaluation of an Evaporative Cooling System in a Silkworm Rearing House.” Biosystems Engineering. 93:213-219.
Liao, C and K Chiu, 2002. Wind tunnel modelling the system performance of alternative evaporative cooling pads in Taiwan region. Building and environment.177–187.
Liao, CM, Singh S and TS Wang, 1998. Characterizing the performance of alternative evaporative cooling pad media in thermal environmental control applications. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A-Toxic/Hazardous Substances Environ. Eng., 33:1391-1417.
Liberty, JT, Ugwuishiwu, BO, Pukuma, SA and CE Odo, 2013. Principles and Application of Evaporative Cooling Systems for Fruits and Vegetables Preservation. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology, INPRESSCO. 3(3):1000-1006. Available from: http://inpressco.com/category/ijcet
Lin, T and Y Chang 1997. Presentation; Modelling and Analyses of Evaporative Cooling Efficiency for Mist-fog Systems. Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C. Retrieved from: www.bime.ntu.edu.tw/~ttlin/Research?conference-E10.ppt (Accessed, 12 September, 2014).
Maclaine-cross, IL and PJ Banks, 1981. A general theory of wet surface heat exchangers and its application to regenerative cooling. ASME J. Heat Transfer. 103:579-585.
Maheshwari, GP, Al-Ragom, F and RK Suri, 2001. Energy saving potential of an indirect evaporative cooler, Applied Energy. 69:69–76.
Manuwa, SI 1991. A Study of Some Structural Materials and Shapes for Constructing Evaporative Cooler. Res. Tech. J., Ondo State Polytechnic Owo, 3(1): 64-74.
Manuwa, SI and SO Odey, 2012. Evaluation of Pads and Geometrical Shapes for Constructing Evaporative Cooling System. Modern Applied Science. 6(6):45-53.
Mazzei, P and Palombo, A 1999. Economic evaluation of hybrid evaporative technology implementation in Italy. Building and Environment. 34:571–582.
Mogaji, TS and OP Fapetu 2011. Development of an evaporative cooling system for the preservation of fresh vegetables. African Journal of Food Science. 5(4):255-266. Retrieved from: http://www.academicjournals.org/ajfs (Accessed on 16th September, 2014).
Muazu, M 2008. Novel Evaporative Cooling Systems for Building Applications. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham, Uk. Retrieved from: http://etheses.nottingham.ac.uk/674/1/MuazuPhdtheses.pdf (Accessed on 16th September, 2014).
Nitipong, S and K Sukum, 2011. Recycled high-density polyethylene and rice husk as a wetted pad in evaporative cooling system. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(2): 186-191.
Odesola, IF and O Onyebuchi, 2009. A Review of Porous Evaporative Cooling for the Preservation of Fruits and Vegetables. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology. 10(2):935-941. Retrieved from: http://www.akamaiuniversity.us/PJST.htm (Accessed on 12th September, 2014).
Palmer, JD 2002. Evaporative Cooling Design Guidelines Manual. Energy Conservation and Management Division Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Department. Retrieved from: http://www.emnrd.state.nm.us/ECMD/Multimedia/documents/EvapCoolingDesignManual.pdf (Accessed on 12th September, 2014).
Pascholda, H, Li, WW, Moralesa, H and J Walton, 2003. Laboratory study of the impact of evaporative coolers on indoor PM concentrations. Atmospheric Environment. 37:1075–1086.
Pescod, D. 1979. A heat exchanger for energy saving in an air conditioning plant. Trans. ASHRAE. 85:238-251.
Powell, J 2013. Transcript of Nigeria. Retrieved from: http://www.prezi.com/tcpinthr43_/nigeria/ (Accessed on 16th September, 2014).
Qureshi, BA. And SM Zubair, 2005. The impact of fouling on performance evaluation of evaporative coolers and condensers, Int J Energy Research.29:1313-1330.
Raškovi, OP, Vuckovic, GD and MV Vukic, 2008. Improving Eco-Sustainable Characteristics and Energy Efficiency of Evaporative Fluid Cooler via Experimental and Numerical Study. Journal of Thermal Science: 12(4):89-103.
Reddy, TV and I Prasanna, 2015. Design and Working Model of Humidifier with Evaporative Cooling Pads. International Journal & Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and Research. 2(8):452-460.
Ren, C and H Yang 2006. An Analytical Model for the Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Indirect Evaporative Cooling with Parallel/Counter Flow Configurations. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer. 49(3-4):617-627.
Riffat, SB and J Zhu, 2004. “Mathematical model of indirect evaporative cooler using porous ceramic and heat pipe”. Applied Thermal Engineering, 24:457–470.
Schneider, MP, Lehmann, J and MW Schmidt, 2011. Charcoal quality does not change over a century in a tropical agro-ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43(9): 1992-1994.
Setekleiv, AE, Helsor, T and HF Svendsen, 2008. Liquid holdup in wire-mesh pads. Chem. Eng. Res. Design, 88: 1523-1531.
Seyoum, T 2010. “Feasibility and Economic Evaluation of Low-Cost Evaporative Cooling System in Fruit and Vegetables Storage.” African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development. 10: 2984-2997.
Sha, BA n.d. . Performance Investigation of Evaporative Cooling Pads of Different Materials. Unpublished document. Retrieved from: http://pradyuman/Upload/ITNU/Publications/ME/Evaporative%20cooling%20pad%20materials%20Performance%20Investigation_S%20R%20Patel_25042014_090329PM.pdf (Accessed 24th October, 2015).
Shakerin, S 2000. Water and fountains in history. ASME Fluids Engineering Division Conference. Boston.
Simmons, JD and BD Lott, 1996. Evaporative cooling performance resulting from changes in water temperature. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. 12:497-500.
Soponpongpipat, N and S Kositchaimongkol, 2011. Recycled High-Density Polyethylene and Rice Husk as a Wetted Pad in Evaporative Cooling System. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 8(2): 186-191.
Sreeram, V 2014. Factors affecting the performance characteristics of wet Cooling pads for data center applications. Retrieved From: https://uta-ir.tdl.org/uta-ir/bitstream/handle/10106/24977/Sreeram_uta_2502M_12973.pdf?sequence=1 (Accessed 28th May, 2016).
Thakur, BC and DP Dhingra, 1983. Parameters Influencing the Saturation Efficiency of an evaporative Rusten Cooler. University of Glasgow College of Agriculture Bulletin.115.
Watt, JR 1986. “Evaporative Air Conditioning Handbook”, Editorial Chapman & Hall, New York,
Watt, JR and WK Brown, 1997. Evaporative air conditioning handbook. 3rd Edition The Fairmont Press, Inc., Lilburn, GA.
Wiersma, F 1983. Evaporative Cooling in Ventilation of Agricultural Structures. An American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Monograph 6th Series, Michigan, USA.
Wikipedia, 2012. Evaporative Cooler. Retrieved From: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evaporative_cooler (Accessed on May 24th, 2016)
Wilson, LG, Boyette, MD and EA Estes, 1995. Postharvest handling and cooling of fresh fruits, vegetables and flowers for small farms. Leaflets, 800-804. North Carolina cooperative extension. Retrieved From: http//www.foodsafety.org/nc/nc (Accessed on October 27th, 2015)
Zalewski, W 1992. Heat and Fluid Flow Problems in Evaporative Heat Exchangers (in Polish), Monograph 139, Krakow University of Technology, Krakow, Poland.
Zalewski, W 1993. Mathematical Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Evaporative Condensers, Int. J. Refrig., 16(1):23-30
Zalewski, W and PA Gryglaszewski, 1997. Mathematical Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Processes in Evaporative Coolers, Chem. Eng. Process. 36(4):271-280
Zhiyin, D, Changhong, Z, Xingxing, Z, Mahmud, M, Xudong, Z, Behrang, A and H Ala, 2012. Indirect evaporative cooling: Past, present and future potentials. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 6823-6850 Retrieved from: www.elsevier.com/locate/rser (Accessed on 10th September, 2014).