Asongwe and Yerima
Greener Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Vol. 3 (1), pp. 001-013, October 2016.
© 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 072716123
Heavy Metal Status in Urban and Peri-Urban Wetland Soils under Vegetable Cultivation in the Bamenda Municipality Cameroon
Godswill A. Asongwe1,2*, Bernard P.K. Yerima1
1Department of Soil Sciences, Faculty of Agronomy and Agricultural Sciences (FASA), University of Dschang, P.O. Box. 222 Dschang, Cameroon
2 Department of Environment and Agriculture, Pan African Institute for Development – West Africa (PAID-WA) Buea. P.O. Box 133 Buea Cameroon.
Urban and pri-urban agriculture contributes significantly to food security, however it is often endangered by improperly managed wastes. This study investigated the levels, trace sources, and predicted the retention of heavy metals in urban and peri-urban agricultural wetland soils in the Bamenda municipality, Cameroon. Four heavy metals (chromium, manganese, lead and cadmium) were analyzed in 21 randomly collected top soil samples by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. The average concentrations of heavy metals in soil were (35.73 mg/kg) for chromium, (0.08 mg/kg) for manganese, (30.64 mg/kg) for lead and (0.45 mg/kg) for cadmium. The concentrations were generally lower than the maximum WHO permissible levels. The metals had varied origins with significant negative (P < 0.01) correlation relationships between Cr and Mn (r = -0.889, P<0.01), Pb and Cd (r = - 0.455, P<0.05). Two principal component factors explained 84.99 percent of reasons of the existence of metals in the area, while a hierarchical dendrogram yielded three clusters representing a typical rural environment, peri-urban and urban centers, respectively with varying human activities. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that Pb retention is controlled by pH water, OM and the clay content with an adjusted R value 0.488 which was significant at the 5% probability level. The prediction was markedly increased to 57.2% when CEC was included in the model. Comparatively to Pb, soil properties do not play a major role in controlling the concentration of Cd in the soil.
Keywords: Heavy metal Status. urban Wetland Soils, Vegetable Cultivation.
Adriano DE (1986). Trace elements in the terrestrial environment, Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y, 234pp.
Aelion CM, Davis HT, McDermott S, and Lawson AB (2009). Soil metal concentrations and toxicity: Associations with distances to industrial facilities and implications for human health. Science of the Total Environment. 407(7): 2216-2223.
Asongwe GA Yerima BPK, and Tening AS (2014). Vegetables production and the livelihood of farmers in Bamenda municipality, Cameroon. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 3(12): 682 – 700.
Awashthi SK (2000). Prevention of Food Adulteration Act no 37 of 1954. Central and State Rules as Amended for 1999, Ashoka Law House, New Delhi. 543pp.
Barančíková GM, Madaras K, and Rybár O (2004). Crop contamination by selected trace elements. J. Soil. Sediments. 4: 37- 42.
Biney C, Amuzu AT, Calamari D, Kaba N, Mbome IL, Naeve H, Ochumba O, Osibanjo O, Radegonde V, and Saad MAH (2005). Etude des métaux lourds; Revue de la pollution dans l’environnement aquatique. http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/V3640F/V3640F04.htm. Accessed 01 January 2013.
Bio Intelligence Service (2010). Soil Biodiversity: Functions, Threats and Tools for Policy Makers. Biointeligence Service. Paris France, 250pp.
Bjuhr J (2007). Trace Metals in Soils Irrigated with Waste Water in a Periurban Area Downstream Hanoi City, Vietnam, Seminar Paper, Institutionen for markvetenskap, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.18pp.
Cheng, H, Li M, Zhao C, Li K, Peng, M, Qin A, and Cheng X (2014). Overview of trace metals in the urban soil of 31 metropolises in China. Journal of Geochemistry Exploration. doi: 10.1016/j.gexplo.2013.08.012.
Defo C, Yerima BPK, Noumsi IMK, Bemmo N. (2015). Assessment of heavy metals in soils and groundwater in an urban watershed of Yaounde (Cameroon-West Africa). Environmental Monitoring Assessment. 187:77 (Author’s Personal Copy).
Delmas-Gadras C (2000). Influence des conditions physico-chimiques sur la mobilité du plomb et du zinc dans un sol et un sédiment en domaine routier. Université de Pau et des pays de l’Adour: Thèse en Chimie et Microbiologie de l’eau.
Diamond ML, and Hodge E (2007). Urban contamination dynamics: From source to effect. Environmental Science & Technology. 41(11): 3796-3803.
Duong TT, and Lee B (2011). Determining contamination level of heavy metals in road dust from busy traffic areas with different characteristics. Journal of Environmental Management. 92: 554–562.
EU. European Union. (2002). Heavy Metals in Wastes, European Commission on Environment. (http://ec.e uropa.eu/environment/waste/studies/pdf/heavy metals report.pdf)
Fifi U (2010). Impacts des eaux pluviales urbaines sur les eaux souterraines dans les pays en développement. Mécanismes de tranfert des métaux lourds à travers un sol modèle au Port-au-Prince, Haïti. Thèse de Doctorat/PhD en Cotutelle de l’INSA, France L’Université Quisqueya (Haïti).
GP-DERUDEP. Grassfield Participatory: Decentralized and Rural Development Project. (2006). Baseline study of the North West Province. SIRDEP Bamenda Cameroon. 298pp.
Grzetic I, Ghariani RHA (2008). Potential health risk assessment for soil heavy metal contamination in the central zone of Belgrade (Serbia). J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 73 (8-9): 923-934
Guerra F, Trevizam AR, Muraoka T, Marcante NC, Canniatti-Brazaca SG (2012). Heavy metals in vegetables and potential risk for human health. Scientia Agricola. 69(1): 54-60.
Guo G, Wu F, Xie F, and Zhang R (2012). Spatial distribution and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban soils from southwest China. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 24(3): 410–418.
Guo GL, and Zhou QX (2006). Evaluation of heavy metal contamination in Phaeozem of Northeast China. Environment Geochemistry and Health. 28: 331-40.
Kerner, MK, Wallmann. (1992). Remobilization events involving cadmium and zinc from intertidal flat sediments in the Elb Estuary during the tidal cycle. Estuarine Coastal Shelf Science. 35: 371-393.
Kirkham MB (2006). Cadmium in plants on polluted soils: Effects of soil factors, hyperaccumulation and amendments. Geoderma. 137: (1-2), 19-32.
Ko B, Park S, Jung G, Kim M, Kim G, Hong S, and Lee D (2010). Characteristics of soil heavy metal contents in the agricultural areas near closed mine in Korea. From the proceedings of the 19th World congress of soil sciences, soil solutions for changing world 1-6 August 2010, Brisbane Australia. Published on DVD
Laker MC (2010). Land use, land cover and soil sciences. University of Pretoria, South Africa Vol: VII 10pp.
Larceder LD, Caryalho CEV, Tanizaki KF, Ovalle ARC, Rezende CE (1993). The Biogeochemistry and trace metals distribution of mangrove rhizospheres. Biotropical. 25: 252-254.
Larmet H (2007). Mobilisation et transfert de Zn, Cd, Cu et des colloïdes bactériens dans les bassins d’infiltration d’eaux pluviales: influence des conditions hydrodynamiques. Université Joseph Fourrier, Grenoble 1: Thèse de Doctorat en Science.
Ling WQ, Shen Y, Gao X, and Yang Z (2007). Use of bentonite to control the release of copper from contaminated soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 45 (8): 618–623.
Liu Q, Liu Y, and Zhang M (2012). Mercury and cadmium contamination in traffic soil of Beijing, China. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 88: 154–157.
Majolagbe AO, Yusuf, KA, and Duru AE (2014). Trace metals characterization in environmental media: A case study of cement production area Ewekoro, Southwest, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection. 3(2): 83-89
Massas I, Kalivas D, Ehaliotis C, and Gasparatos D (2013). Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 185(8): 6751–6766.
Mengel K, and Kirkby EA (1987). Principles of plant nutrition. International Potash Institute. Worblaufen-Ben Switzerland. 687pp.
Mico CL, Recatala M, and Sanchez Z (2006). Factors controlling sorption of metals in lateritic soils. Chemosphere. 65:865-874.
Muhammad I, Malik AH, Shaukat S, S Mushtaq, and Ashraf M (2012). Characterization of heavy metals in livestock manures. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 22(4)1257-1262.
Nan Z, Zhao C, Li J, Chen F, and Sun W (2002). Relations between soil properties and selected heavy metal concentrations in spring wheat (Tritichum aestivum, L.) grown in contaminated soils. Water air and soil pollution. 133:205 -213.
Ndenecho EN (2005). Biological Resource Exploitation in Cameroon: From crises to sustainable management. Unique Printers Bamenda Cameroon: 181pp.
Nwaichi EO, Wegwu MO, and Nwosu UL (2014). Distribution of selected carcinogenic hydrocarbon and heavy metals in an oil-polluted agriculture zone. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. doi:10. 1007/s10661-014-4037-6.
O’Reilly SE, and Hochella Jr MF (2003). Geochemistry. Cosmochemistry Acta. 67:4471 – 4483.
Orson RA, Simpson RL, and Good RE (1992). A Mechanism for the accumulation and retention of heavy metals in tidal fresh water marshes of the upper Delaware River Estuary. Estuarine Coastal Shell Science. 34:171-186.
Pauwels JM, Van Ranst E, Verloo M, and Mvondo-Ze AD (1992). Manuel de Laboratoire de pedologie: methods d’Analyses de sols et de plantes, Equipment, Gestion de stocks de verrerie et de produit chimique. Publication Agricoles, Dschang Cameroon, 265pp.
Raymond AW and Okieimen FE (2011). Heavy metals in contaminated soils: a review of sources, chemistry, risks and best available strategies for remediation. International Scholarly Research Network. doi:10.5402/2011/402647.
Ross S (1994). Toxic metals in Soil-Plant Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.
Sanche AG, Ayuso EA, and De Blas OJ (1999). Sorption of heavy metals from industrial waste water by low-cost mineral silicates. Clay Miner. 34(3), 469 477.
Sánchez-Martín MJ, García-Delgado M, Lorenzo LF, Rodríguez-Cruz MS, and Arienzo M (2007). Heavy metals in sewage sludge amended soils determined by sequential extractions as a function of incubation time of soils. Geoderma. 142 (3-4): 262-273.
Scalenghe R, and Marsan FA. (2009). The anthropogenic sealing of soils in urban areas. Journal of Lanscape and Urban Planning. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.10.011.
Sillanpaa M (1972). Trace elements in soils and agriculture. FAO Soils Bulletin No. 17. Rome 1972.
Srinivasa G, Ramakrishna RM, and Govil PK (2010). Assessment of heavy metals contamination in soils at Jajmaw (Kanpur) and Unnao industrial areas of the Ganga plain, Uttar Praddesh, Indian Journal of Hazardous Materials. 174: 113–121.
Swift MJ, and Woomer P (1993). Organic matter and the sustainability of agricultural systems: Definition and measurement. In K. Mulongoy and R. Merckx (eds.), Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Sustainability of Tropical Agriculture. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Sayce. Pp. 3-18
Tahir NM, Chee PS, Maisarah J (2007). Determination of heavy metals content in soils and indoor dusts from nurseries in dungun, terengganu. The Malaysian Journal. Analytical. Science. 11(1) 280-286.
Tam NF, Wong YYS (1996). Retention and distribution of heavy metals in mangrove soils receiving wastewater. Environmental Pollution. 94(3): 283- 291.
Tomasz C, Grzegorz K, Poluszyńska J, and Katarzyna K (2014). Pollution of flooded arable soils with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Water Air Soil Pollution. doi:10.1007/s11270-014-2145-0.
UN Population Division (2004). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2003 revision. Department of Economics and Social Affairs, United Nations. New York, USA http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/wup2003/WUP2003Report.pdf
WHO/FAO (2007). Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard Programme Codex Alimentarius Commission 13th Session. Report of the Thirty Eight Session of the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene. Houston, United States of America, ALINORM 07/30/13.
Woomer PL, Martin A, Albrecht A, Resck DVS, and Scharpenseel HW (1994). The importance and management of soil organic matter in the tropics. In Woomer PL, and Swift MJ (eds.), The Biological Management of Tropical Soil Fertility. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Sayce. Pp.47- 80.
Yerima BPK, and Van Ranst E (2005a). Introduction to Soil Science, soil of the Tropics. TRAFFORD Publishers, Victoria Canada, 397pp.
Yerima BPK, and Van Ranst E (2005b). Major soil classification systems used in the Tropics: Soils of Cameroon. TRAFFORD Publishers, Victoria Canada. 295pp.
Yerima BPK, Van Ranst E, Sertsu S, and Verdoodt A (2013). Pedogenic impacts on the distribution of total and available Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb and Co contents of vertisols and vertic inceptisols of the Bale Mountain area of Ethiopia. African Journal of Agricultural Research. 8(44):5429-5439.