Jha et al Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 3 (2), pp.073-084, February 2013 ISSN: 2276-7770 Research Paper Manuscript Number:010313354 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2013.2.010313354 Association of Rhizospheric/Endophytic Bacteria with Plants: A Potential Gateway to Sustainable Agriculture *Prabhat N Jha, Garima Gupta, Prameela Jha and Rajesh Mehrotra Department of Biological Sciences, Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Pilani-333031 Rajasthan, India *Corresponding Author’s Email: prabhatjha @ pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in Tel.: +91 1596 245073 273; Fax: +91 1596 244183. Abstract: Application of associative bacteria for sustainable agriculture holds immense potential. These bacteria are known to enhance growth and yield of plants by fixing atmospheric nitrogen, solubilization of phosphate, production of phytohormones and siderophores, possession of antagonistic activity as well as reducing the level of stress ethylene in host plants. Colonization of these bacteria can be tracked by tagging them with certain molecular markers such as β-glucuronidase (gus) or green fluorescent protein (gfp) followed by electron microscopy or laser scanning confocal microscopy. Associative bacteria and endophytes may express genes differentially to colonize and establish the plant interior. They may also use ‘quorum sensing’ molecules for colonization process. Present review aims to highlight various plant growth promoting properties, ecology and updates of molecular mechanisms involved in interaction between associative bacteria and plants as well as immune responses triggered by these bacteria in plants. Keywords: Associative bacteria, endophyte, diazotrophy, biocontrol, induced systemic tolerance, induced systemic resistance. Return to Content View [Full Article – PDF] [Full Article – HTML] [Full Article – EPUB] Reference: Backman PA and Sikora RA (2008). Endophytes: An emerging tool for biological control. Biol. Control. 46: 1–3. Bais HP, Weir TL, Perry LG, Gilroy S and Vivanco JM (2006). The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 57:233–66. Baldani JI and Baldani VLD (2005). History on the biological nitrogen fixation research in graminaceous plants: special emphasis on the Brazilian experience. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 77: 549-579. Bhattacharjee RB, Singh A and Mukhopadhyay SN (2008). Use of nitrogen-fixing bacteria as biofertiliser for non-legumes: prospects and challenges. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 80: 199–209. Bhattacharya PN and Jha DK (2012). Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR): emergence in agriculture. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 28:1327–1350. Bilal R, Rasul G, Arshad M and Malik KA (1993). Attachment, colonization and proliferation of Azospirillum brasilense and Enterobacter spp. on root surface of grasses. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 9:63-69. Biswas JC, Ladha JK, Dazzo FB, Yanni YG and Rolfe BG (2000). Rhizobial inoculation influences seedling vigor and yield of rice. Agronomy J. 92:880–886. Boddey RM (1995). Biological nitrogen fixation in sugarcane: a key to energetically viable biofuel production. Crit. Rev Plant Sci. 14:209-266. Böhm M, Hurek T and Reinhold-Hurek B (2007). Twitching Motility is essential for endophytic rice colonization by the N2-fixing endophyte Azoarcus sp. strain BH72. Mol Plant-Microbe In. 20: 526–533. Chi F, Shen SH, Cheng HP, Jing YX, Yanni YG and Dazzo FB (2005). Ascending migration of endophytic Rhizobia, from roots to leaves, inside rice plants and assessment of benefits to rice growth physiology. Appl. Environ. Microb. 71:7271–7278. Compant S, Duffy B, Nowak J, Clément C and Ait Barka E (2005). Use of plant growth-promoting bacteria for biocontrol of plant diseases: principles, mechanisms of action, and future prospects. Appl. Environ. Microb. 71: 4951–4959. Compant S, Mitter B, Colli-Mull JG, Gangl H and Sessitsch A (2011). Endophytes of grapevine flowers, berries, and seeds: identification of cultivable bacteria, comparison with other plant parts, and visualization of niches of colonization. Microb. Ecol. 62:188–197. De Weert S, Dekkers LC, Bitter W, Tuinman S, Wijfjes AHM, van Boxtel R and Lugtenbergn BJ (2009). The two-component colR/S system of Pseudomonas fluorescents WCS365 plays a role in rhizosphere competence through maintaining the structure and function of the outer membrane. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 58:205–213. De-Bashan LE, Hernandez JP and Bashan Y (2012). The potential contribution of plant growth-promoting bacteria to reduce environmental degradation– A comprehensive evaluation. Appl. Soil Ecol. 61:171–189. Egamberdieva D (2009). Alleviation of salt stress by plant growth regulators and IAA producing bacteria in wheat. Acta Physiol. Plant. 31:861–864. Govindarajan M, Balandreau J, Kwon SW, Weon HY and Lakshminarasimhan C (2008). Effects of the inoculation of Burkholderia vietnamensis and related endophytic diazotrophic bacteria on grain yield of rice. Microb. Ecol. 55: 21–37. Hallmann J, Quadt- Hallmann QA, Mahaffee WF and Kloepper JW (1997). Bacterial endophytes in agricultural crops. Can J Microbiol. 43:895–914. Hardoim PR, van Overbeek LS and Elsas JD (2008). Properties of bacterial endophytes and their proposed role in plant growth. Trends Microbiol. 16:463-471. Hurek T and Reinhold-Hurek B (2003). Azoarcus sp. strain BH72 as a model for nitrogen-fixing grass endophytes. J Biotechnol. 106:169-178. Iniguez AL, Dong Y and Triplett EW (2004). Nitrogen fixation in wheat provided by Klebsiella pneumoniae 342. Mol Plant–Microbe Interact. 17:1078–1085. Iniguez AL, Dong Y, Carter HD, Ahmer BMM, Stone JM and Triplett EW (2005). Regulation of enteric endophytic bacterial colonization by plant defenses. Mol Plant-Microbe Interact. 18:169–178. Jankiewicz U and Kołtonowicz M (2012). The involvement of Pseudomonas bacteria in induced systemic resistance in plants. Prikl Biokhim Mikrobiol. 48:276-81. Jha P and Kumar A (2009). Characterization of novel plant growth promoting endophytic bacterium Achromobacter xylosoxidans from wheat plant. Microb. Ecol. 58:179-188. Jha PN, Mishra VK, Chaudhary MK, Sikarwar AP, Tyagi MB and Kumar A (2004). Diversity in nitrogen fixation by endophytic Bacteria. In: Microbial Diversity: Opportunities and Challenges. Eds. Gautam SP, Sharma A, Sandhu SS and Pandey AK. Shree Publishers & Distributors, New Delhi (India), pp- 287-307. Khan AA, Jilani G, Akhtar MS, Naqvi SMS and Rasheed M (2009). Phosphorus solubilizing bacteria: occurrence, mechanisms and their role in crop production. J Agric. Biol. Sci. 1:48-58. Lacava PT, Li WB, Araứjo WL, Azevedo JL and Hartung JS (2006). Rapid, specific and quantitative assays for the detection of the endophytic bacterium Methylobacterium mesophilicum in plants. J Microbiol Methods. 65: 535–541. Ladha JK and Reddy PM (2000). Steps towards nitrogen fixation in Rice. The quest for nitrogen fixation in rice. (JK Ladha & PM Reddy, eds), pp.33-46. International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines. Lery LMS, Hemerly AS, Nogueira EM, von Krüger WMA and Bisch PM (2011). Quantitative proteomic analysis of the interaction between the endophytic plant-growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus and sugarcane. Mol Plant Microbe in 24:562–576. López-Bucio J, Campos-Cuevas JC, Hernández-Calderón E, Velásquez-Becerra C, Farías-Rodríguez R, Macías-Rodríguez LI and Valencia-Cantero E (2007). Bacillus megaterium rhizobacteria promote growth and alter root-system architecture through an auxin- and ethylene-independent signaling mechanism in Arabidopis thaliana. Mol Plant-Microbe in 20:207-17. Lugtenberg B and Kamilova F (2009). Plant-growth-promoting Rhizobacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol. 63:541–56. Mastretta C, Taghavi S, van der Lelie D, Mengoni A, Galardi F, Gonnelli C, Barac T, Boulet J, Weyens N and Vangronsveld J (2009). Endophytic bacteria from seeds of Nicotiana tabacum can reduce cadmium phytotoxicity. Int. J. of Phytorem. 11:251–267. Miché L, Battistoni F, Gemmer S, Belghazi M and Reinhold-Hurek B (2006). Upregulation of jasmonate-inducible defense proteins and differential colonization of roots of Oryza sativa cultivars with the endophyte Azoarcus sp. Mol Plant Microbe. 19: 502–511. Muthukumarasamy R, Cleenwerck I, Revathi G, Vadivelu M, Janssens D, Hoste B, Gum KU, Park K, Son CY, Sa T and Caballero-Mellado J (2005). Natural association of Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus and diazotrophic Acetobacter peroxydans with wetland rice. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 28:277-286. Niu D, Liu H, Jiang C, Wang Y, Jin H and Guo J (2011). The plant growth–promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus cereus AR156 induces systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana, by simultaneously activating salicylate- and jasmonate/ethylene-dependent signaling pathways. Mol Plant Microbe. 24: 533–542. Nogueira E, de M, Vinagre F, et al. (2001). Expression of sugarcane genes induced by inoculation with Gluconoacetobacter diazotrophicus and Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans. Genetics Mol Biol. 24:199-206. Oliveira ALM, Urquiaga S, Döbereiner J and Baldani JI (2002). The effect of inoculating endophytic N2-fixing bacteria on micro-propagated sugarcane plants. Plant Soil. 242:205–215. Park KH, Lee O, Jung H, Jeong J, Jeon Y, Hwang D, Lee C and Son H (2010). Rapid solubilization of insoluble phosphate by a novel environmental stress-tolerant Burkholderia vietnamiensis M6 isolated from ginseng rhizospheric soil. Appl. Microbiol Biotechnol. 86:947–955. Pedrosa FO, Monteiro RA and Wassem R (2011). Genome of Herbaspirillum seropedicae strain SmR1, a specialized diazotrophic endophyte of tropical grasses. PLoS Genet 7:e1002064. Preston GM, Bertrand N and Rainey PB (2001). Type III secretion in plant growth-promoting Pseudomonas fluorescents SBW25. Mol Microbiol. 41:999–1014. Prieto P, Schilirò E, Maldonado-González MM, Valderrama R, Barroso-Albarracín JB and Mercado-Blanco J (2011). Root hairs play a key role in the endophytic colonization of olive roots by Pseudomonas spp. with biocontrol activity. Microb. Ecol. 62:435–445. Rajkumar M, Ae N, Prasad MNV and Freitas H (2010). Potential of siderophore-producing bacteria for improving heavy metal phytoextraction. Trends Biotechnol. 28:142-149. Reinhold-Hurek B and Hurek T (2011). Living inside plants: bacterial endophytes. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 14:435–443. Rodrıguez H, Fraga R, Gonzalez T and Bashan Y (2006). Genetics of phosphate solubilization and its potential applications for improving plant growth-promoting bacteria. Plant Soil. 287:15–21. Rosenblueth M and Martínez-Romero E (2006). Bacterial endophytes and their interactions with hosts. Mol Plant-Microbe. 19: 827–837. Rothballer M, Eckert B, Schmid M, Fekete A, Schloter M, Lehner A, Pollmann S and Hartmann A (2008). Endophytic root colonization of gramineous plants by Herbaspirillum frisingense. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 66:85–95. Ryan RP, Germaine K, Franks A, Ryan DJ and Dowling DN (2008). Bacterial endophytes: recent developments and applications. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 278:1–9. Selin C, Habibian R, Poritsanos N, Sarangi NPA, Fernando D and de Kievit TR (2010). Phenazines are not essential for Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, but do play a role in biofilm formation. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 71:73-83. Serrato RV, Sassaki GL, Cruz LM, Carlson RW, Muszynski A, Monteiro RA, Pedrosa FO, Souza EM and Iacomini M (2010). Chemical composition of lipopolysaccharides isolated from various endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the genus Herbaspirillum. Can J Microbiol. 56: 342–347. Spaepen S, Vanderleyden J and Remans R (2007). Indole-3-acetic acid in microbial and microorganism-plant Signaling. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 31:425–448. Terakado-Tonooka J, Ohwaki Y, Yamakawa H, Tanaka F, Yoneyama T and Fujihara S (2008). Expression of nifH genes of endophytic bacteria detected in field-grown sweet potatoes (Ipomea batata L.). Microbes Environ. 23:89-93. Tian B, Yang J and Zhang K (2007). Bacteria used in the biological control of plant-parasitic nematodes: populations, mechanisms of action, and future prospects. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 61: 197–213. van Loon LC (2007). Plant responses to plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. Eur J Plant Pathol. 119:243–254. Yang J, Kloepper JW and Ryu C (2009). Rhizosphere bacteria help plants tolerate abiotic stress. Trends Plant Sci. 14:1-4. Yanni YG, Rizk RY and Corich V (1997). Natural endophytic association between Rhizobium leguminosarum bv.trifolii and rice roots and assessment of its potential to promote rice growth. Plant Soil. 194:99 -114. You M, Nishiguchi T, Saito A, Isawa T, Mitsui H and Minamisawa K (2005). Expression of the nifH gene of a Herbaspirillum endophyte in wild rice species: daily rhythm during the light–dark cycle. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:8183–8190. Zhang H, Xie X, Kim M, Kornyeyev DA, Holaday S and Pare W (2008). Soil bacteria augment Arabidopsis photosynthesis by decreasing glucose sensing and abscisic acid levels in plant. Plant J. 56:264–273.