Greener Journal of Plant Breeding and Crop Science Vol. 4 (4), pp. 081-086, August 2016.
ISSN: 2354-2292 © 2015 Greener Journals
Manuscript Number: 062816109
Effect of Nitrogen Rates and Varieties on Grain Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
Tilahun Bergene1 and Alemayehu Balcha2*
1Department of Agriculture Development, Wolaita zone, P.O.Box 42, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.
2Hawassa Agricultural Research Centre, South Agricultural Research Institute, P.O.Box 2126, Hawassa, Ethiopia.
Wheat is most important cereal crop in Ethiopia and its productivity is partly constrained by the low N content of the soil. A field experiment was carried out on-farm at Kokate village, Sodo Zuria district, Wolaita, Ethiopia, from July to November 2014, during main cropping season, in order to determine grain yield and yield components, and nitrogen use efficiency using factorial combinations of five N rates (0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 kg/ha) and three bread wheat varieties (Hidase, Hulluka and Tay) in randomized complete block design with three replications. The increase in N rate from 0 to 120 kg/ha increased days to flowering from 75 to 77, days to maturity 107 to 112, plant height 77.73 to 101.66 cm, productive spikes/m2 217 to 399 and seeds per spike 45 to 58. The increase in N rate from 0 to 120 kg/ha increased biomass yield from 7361 to 15506 kg/ha, grain yield 2500 to 4917 kg/ha and 1000-seed weight 39.01 to 44.44 g. Nitrogen use efficiency decreased from 114 to 41 with the increase in N rate from 30 to 120 kg/ha. Variety Hulluka exhibited high productive spikes/m2, seeds per spike, N use efficiency and grain yield compared to varieties Hidase and Tay. This study suggests that N fertilization recommendations would consider not only the increase in grain yield but also the decline in N use efficiency as N supply increases.
Key words: Bread wheat, grain yield, nitrogen, Nitrogen use efficiency, Triticum aestivum
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