Genotyping of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Cervical Cancer at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main causative agent of cervical cancer and 99.7% of cervical cancer has been attributed to infection by the virus. Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa and it remains a serious public health issue. This study was carried out to determine the genotypes of HPV in archival specimen of cervical cancer cases at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti (FTHI), Ekiti state, Nigeria. Methods: The materials for this study consisted of paraffin embedded tissue blocks, Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained slides, hospital request forms, patients case notes and duplicate copies of histopathology reports of histologically-diagnosed cervical cancer patients at the Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology Department of FTHI between January 2017 and December 2019. DNA extraction and quantification was done. Real time PCR (qPCR) was done to determine different types of Human papilloma virus present in archival specimens using specific primers (4X HPV 28 A TOM (Primer A) and 4X HPV 28 B TOM (Primer B). Results: Twenty-eight (28) cervical cancers were diagnosed and confirmed in the department during the study period, however, twenty-seven (27) of the cases were considered appropriate for HPV detection after histological evaluation and Twenty-five (25) (92.6%) were positive for HPV DNA. The six most common types of HPV occurring recurrently among HPV positive cases were HPV16 (47.1%), HPV35 (11.8%), HPV31 (9.8%), HPV18 (5.9%), HPV45 (3.9%) and HPV58 (3.9%). Multiple infections were detected in 68% of the cases. Conclusion: The high occurrence of HPV type 16 in this study confirms the role of HPV 16 in cervical cancer pathogenesis in the studied population and high rate of multiple infections also suggests that multiple infections play significant role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. The findings of high occurrence of HPV 35 as a co-infection with HPV 16 and other types of HPV also suggest that the vaccines currently used as preventive measures against cervical cancer in this environment which offers no prevention against HPV 35, may not prevent majority of invasive cervical cancers in the studied population. Read more
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Genotyping of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Cervical Cancer at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main causative agent of cervical cancer and 99.7% of cervical cancer has been attributed to infection by the virus. Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa and it remains a serious public health issue. This study was carried out to determine the genotypes of HPV in archival specimen of cervical cancer cases at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti (FTHI), Ekiti state, Nigeria. Methods: The materials for this study consisted of paraffin embedded tissue blocks, Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained slides, hospital request forms, patients case notes and duplicate copies of histopathology reports of histologically-diagnosed cervical cancer patients at the Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology Department of FTHI between January 2017 and December 2019. DNA extraction and quantification was done. Real time PCR (qPCR) was done to determine different types of Human papilloma virus present in archival specimens using specific primers (4X HPV 28 A TOM (Primer A) and 4X HPV 28 B TOM (Primer B). Results: Twenty-eight (28) cervical cancers were diagnosed and confirmed in the department during the study period, however, twenty-seven (27) of the cases were considered appropriate for HPV detection after histological evaluation and Twenty-five (25) (92.6%) were positive for HPV DNA. The six most common types of HPV occurring recurrently among HPV positive cases were HPV16 (47.1%), HPV35 (11.8%), HPV31 (9.8%), HPV18 (5.9%), HPV45 (3.9%) and HPV58 (3.9%). Multiple infections were detected in 68% of the cases. Conclusion: The high occurrence of HPV type 16 in this study confirms the role of HPV 16 in cervical cancer pathogenesis in the studied population and high rate of multiple infections also suggests that multiple infections play significant role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. The findings of high occurrence of HPV 35 as a co-infection with HPV 16 and other types of HPV also suggest that the vaccines currently used as preventive measures against cervical cancer in this environment which offers no prevention against HPV 35, may not prevent majority of invasive cervical cancers in the studied population. Read more
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Genotyping of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Cervical Cancer at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main causative agent of cervical cancer and 99.7% of cervical cancer has been attributed to infection by the virus. Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa and it remains a serious public health issue. This study was carried out to determine the genotypes of HPV in archival specimen of cervical cancer cases at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti (FTHI), Ekiti state, Nigeria. Methods: The materials for this study consisted of paraffin embedded tissue blocks, Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained slides, hospital request forms, patients case notes and duplicate copies of histopathology reports of histologically-diagnosed cervical cancer patients at the Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology Department of FTHI between January 2017 and December 2019. DNA extraction and quantification was done. Real time PCR (qPCR) was done to determine different types of Human papilloma virus present in archival specimens using specific primers (4X HPV 28 A TOM (Primer A) and 4X HPV 28 B TOM (Primer B). Results: Twenty-eight (28) cervical cancers were diagnosed and confirmed in the department during the study period, however, twenty-seven (27) of the cases were considered appropriate for HPV detection after histological evaluation and Twenty-five (25) (92.6%) were positive for HPV DNA. The six most common types of HPV occurring recurrently among HPV positive cases were HPV16 (47.1%), HPV35 (11.8%), HPV31 (9.8%), HPV18 (5.9%), HPV45 (3.9%) and HPV58 (3.9%). Multiple infections were detected in 68% of the cases. Conclusion: The high occurrence of HPV type 16 in this study confirms the role of HPV 16 in cervical cancer pathogenesis in the studied population and high rate of multiple infections also suggests that multiple infections play significant role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. The findings of high occurrence of HPV 35 as a co-infection with HPV 16 and other types of HPV also suggest that the vaccines currently used as preventive measures against cervical cancer in this environment which offers no prevention against HPV 35, may not prevent majority of invasive cervical cancers in the studied population. Read more
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Genotyping of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) in Cervical Cancer at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria

Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main causative agent of cervical cancer and 99.7% of cervical cancer has been attributed to infection by the virus. Cervical cancer is a common cancer in women in sub-Saharan Africa and it remains a serious public health issue. This study was carried out to determine the genotypes of HPV in archival specimen of cervical cancer cases at the Federal Teaching Hospital Ido-Ekiti (FTHI), Ekiti state, Nigeria. Methods: The materials for this study consisted of paraffin embedded tissue blocks, Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) stained slides, hospital request forms, patients case notes and duplicate copies of histopathology reports of histologically-diagnosed cervical cancer patients at the Morbid Anatomy and Histopathology Department of FTHI between January 2017 and December 2019. DNA extraction and quantification was done. Real time PCR (qPCR) was done to determine different types of Human papilloma virus present in archival specimens using specific primers (4X HPV 28 A TOM (Primer A) and 4X HPV 28 B TOM (Primer B). Results: Twenty-eight (28) cervical cancers were diagnosed and confirmed in the department during the study period, however, twenty-seven (27) of the cases were considered appropriate for HPV detection after histological evaluation and Twenty-five (25) (92.6%) were positive for HPV DNA. The six most common types of HPV occurring recurrently among HPV positive cases were HPV16 (47.1%), HPV35 (11.8%), HPV31 (9.8%), HPV18 (5.9%), HPV45 (3.9%) and HPV58 (3.9%). Multiple infections were detected in 68% of the cases. Conclusion: The high occurrence of HPV type 16 in this study confirms the role of HPV 16 in cervical cancer pathogenesis in the studied population and high rate of multiple infections also suggests that multiple infections play significant role in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. The findings of high occurrence of HPV 35 as a co-infection with HPV 16 and other types of HPV also suggest that the vaccines currently used as preventive measures against cervical cancer in this environment which offers no prevention against HPV 35, may not prevent majority of invasive cervical cancers in the studied population. Read more
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