Salau Et Al

Advertisements

Salau et al

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 6 (10), pp. 285-293, November 2016.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 092316144


(DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2016.10.092316144)

 

Aflatoxin Contamination of Stored
Groundnut Kernel in Sokoto State, Nigeria

 

*1Salau
IA, 2Shehu K, 2Muhammad S and 3Umar RA

 

*1Department of Biology, Shehu Shagari
College of Education, Sokoto Nigeria.

2Department of
Biological Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Nigeria.

3Department of Biochemistry,
Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto Nigeria.


Abstract

Aflatoxins (AF) are a group of fungal toxins that
contaminate foods and feeds with adverse health impact on human beings and
animals. A total of sixty three (63) samples of Groundnut kernels from three
(3) Agricultural zones of Sokoto State, were analysed for the presence of
Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and
G2 (AFG2) using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The
Aflatoxin was detected in 82.5%, the total Aflatoxin concentration ranged
between 0.9-646.0 μg/kg. All four types of AF were detected from all samples,
out of the total samples analysed 38.10% contained AF levels above the Nigerian
(20 μg/kg) limits for AF, while 66.7% samples had AF concentrations above the
European Union maximum tolerance level of 2μg/kg for AFB1 and Total
Aflatoxin(Tot AF) of 4μg/kg. The result shows that, there were significant (P
> 0.05) differences between the samples analysed in the state, as regards to
AFB1. The results also revealed that Groundnut kernel in the study
area have high frequency of contamination (82.5%).
However,
awareness on danger of Aflatoxin contamination by all stakeholders is the key
in effective management of the problem.
Relevant quality control units must be reactivated to
assess the quality of the Groundnut kernels from which other products are made
.

 

Key words: Aflatoxin,
Contamination, Store Groundnut kernel and Agricultural zones.

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]

References

Adebajo LO, Idowu, AA.andAdesanya OO
(1994). Mycoflora and mycotoxins production in Nigerian corn and corn based
snacks. Mycopathologia126:183–192.

 

Akano DA and Atanda, OO. (1990) The
present Level of Aflatoxin in Nigeria Groundnut Cake (‘Kulikuli’).Letters in App. Microbiol. 10:
187-18.

 

AOAC  International (2008) Official  methods  of 
analysis
  of  AOAC 
International. 18th edition.   Gaithersburg,
MD, USA, Association of Analytical Communities.

 

Bankole SA,
Ogunsanwo BM and Eseigbe DA. (2005) Aflatoxins in Nigerian dry-roasted
Groundnuts Food Chem 89:503–506.

 

Bankole SA and
Mabekoje OO.(2004) Mycoflora and Occurrence of Aflatoxin B1 in Dried Yam Chips
from Markets in Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria.Mycopathologia.157(1):111-115.

 

Chang AS, Sreedharan A, Schneider
KR. (2013) Peanut and peanut products: a food safety perspective. Food Contr
32:296–303.

 

Cora IB, Angre D, Ronald EM (2005).
Separation of aflatoxins by HPLC application.Agilent Technology publication
5989-3634EN www.agilent.com/chem, 16th August, 2006.

 

Domsch KH, Gams W and Anderson TH
(2007). Compendium of Soil Fungi,
IHW-Verlag, Eching.

 

Ehrlich KC, Lee LS (1984). Mycotoxin
grain dust: method of analysis of aflatoxin, ochratoxin A, Zearalenone,
Vomitoxin and secalomic acid. J. Assoc. Official Anal. Chem. 67: 963.

 

Ezekiel CN, Sombie JI (2014). Survey
of aflatoxins and fungi in some commercial breakfast cereals and pastas
retailed in Ogun State, Nigeria.Nat Sci ;12(6):27-32

 

Ezekiel, C. N.,
Sulyok, M., Babalola, D. A., Warth, B., Ezekiel, B. C. and Krska, R. (2013)
Incidence and consumer awareness of toxigenicAspergillus section Flavi and
Aflatoxin B1 in Groundnut cake from Nigeria. Food Cont. 30:596-601

 

FAOSTAT.(2013) Faostat homepage.www.faostat.fao.
org/site/339/default.aspx [accessed February 27, 2013].

 

Farombi EO (2003). African
Indigenous plants with chemotherapeutic potentials and biotechnological
approach to production of bioactive prophylactic agents. Afr. J. Biotech. 2(12): 662-671.

 

Food and Agriculture
Organization.(2004). Worldwide regulations for mycotoxins in food and feed in
(2003).FAO Foodand Nutrition Paper no. 81.
Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization, Pp. 1– 180.

 

Glenn AE
(2007)MycotoxigenicFusariumspecies in
animal feed.Anim Feed Sci Technol. 137(3-4): 213-240.

 

Junaidu AU (2005) Epidemiological
Studies on Brucellosis in Sokoto State.PhD Thesis, Dept. of Vet.Public Health
and Animal Prod.UsmanuDanfodiyo University, Sokoto.Pp 167

 

Kayode OF,
Sulyok M, Fapohunda SO, Ezekiel NC, Krska R and Oguntona CRB (2013).Mycotoxin
and fungal metabolites in groundnut and maize-based snacks from Nigeria,Food
Additives and Contaminants; 6:4,
294-300.

 

Krska R, Welzing E and Boudra H
(2007).Analysis of fusarium toxins in feed, Ani. Feed. Sci. Tech. 137:241-264

 

Leslie JF, Summerell BA (2006)  TheFusariumLaboratory
Manual. Iowa State University Press, Iowa. 400pp

 

Liu Y, Wu F (2010) Global burden of
aflatoxin-induced hepatocellular carcinoma: a risk assessment Environmental Health Perspectives 118:818-824.

 

McDonald D
(1964). Progress reports on research into Aflatoxin production in Groundnuts in
Northern Nigeria. Samaru Miscellaneous Papers 2: 13p.

 

Mutegi CK,
Ngugi HK, Hendriks SL, Jones RB. (2009) Prevalence and factors associated with
Aflatoxin contamination of Groundnuts from Western Kenya. Int J Food Microbiol
130:27–34.

 

National Population Commission (NPC,
2007).Population Census Data, Nigeria, Federal Republic of Nigeria Official
Gazette, National and State Provisional Total Census, Printed and Published in
Federal Government Printer, Lagos, No 21 vol.94,

 

Odoemelam SA.
andOsu CI (2009). Aflatoxin B1 contamination of some edible grains marketed in
Nigeria. E-J. Chem. 6(2): 308-314

 

Ogunsanwo BM,
Faboya OOP, Idowu OR, Lawal OS, Bankole SA. (2004) Effect of roasting on the
Aflatoxin contents of Nigerian Groundnut seeds. Afri J Biotechnol 3:451–455.

 

Rachaputi NR,
Wright GC, Kroschi S (2002). Management practices to minimise pre-harvest
Aflatoxin contamination in Australian Groundnuts. Austr. J. Exp. Agric. 42: 595-605.

 

Singh K, Frisvad JC, Thrane U, Mathu
SB (1982). An illustrated manual on identification of some seed borne
Aspergilli, Fusaria, Penicillia and their mycotoxins. Heller up, Denmark:
Danish Government, Institute of seed pathology for developing countries. P.
133.

 

Soler CMT,
HoogenboomOlatinwo R, Diarra B, Waliyar F, Traore S. (2010) Groundnut
contamination by Aspergillusflavus and Aflatoxin B1 in granaries of villages
and markets of Mali, West Africa. J Food Agric Environ 8:195–203.

 

Waliyar F, Reddy SV and Kumar PL
(2005) Estimation of Aspergillusflavus infection and Aflatoxin Contamination in
Seeds: Laboratory Manual. International Crops Research Institute for the
Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, India. 26pp.

 

Woodroof JG. (1984) Peanuts: Production,
Processing, Products, 3rd edn. Westport, CN, TheAvi Publishing Company.

 

World Health
Organization (WHO, 2006) Mycotoxin in African foods:  Implications to Food Safety and Health. AFRO
Food Safety Newsletter, World Health Organization Food safety (FOS).

 

Wu F. (2007).
Measuring the economic impacts of Fusarium
toxins in animal feeds Anim Feed
SciTechnol
. 137(3-4): 363-374.

 

Yameogo RT, Kassamba B (1999). Aspergillusflavusand Aflatoxin on tropical seeds used for snacks Arachis hypogaea, Balanites aegyptiaca and Sclerocaryabirrea.
Trop. Sci. 39: 46-49.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *