Waktola Et Al


Waktola et al

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 6 (2), pp. 041-048, February 2016.

ISSN: 2276-7770  

Research Paper

Manuscript Number: 112415163


(DOI http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2016.2.112415163)

A Study on the Profitability of Fish and Horticrop Integrated
Farming at Nono District, West Shoa Zone, Ethiopia


Belay Adugna Waktola1, Prabha Devi L.1*,
Sreenivasa V.1 and Aschalew Lakew2


1 Department of Biology, Ambo
University, Ethiopia

2 National
Fishery and Other Aquatic Life Research Center, Ethiopia



The study on integration of tilapia and vegetable cultivation was
conducted at Silkamba, in west shoa zone, Ethiopia. The Nile tilapia
fingerlings were stocked (3/m2) in an earthen pond fertilized with
cow dung and poultry excreta at 3:1 ratio. A control pond was maintained
without fertilization. The seedlings of the tomato (Cochoro variety) and onion
(Bombay red) were planted on twelve plots prepared adjacent to the ponds. The
seedlings on six treatment plots were grown by addition of the fertilized fish
pond water and control plants were supplied with the control pond water.
Physico-chemical parameters like dissolved oxygen, pH, carbon dioxide,
alkalinity and nitrate in the treatment pond remained within the required level
for the growth of Nile tilapia. The water temperature was comparatively high
which was more suitable for the production of fish food organisms as well as
the fish growth in the pond. The level of nitrate and total phosphorus in the
treatment pond was at the suitable level which enhanced the growth of plankton
and benthic organisms in the pond. The bottom soil in the treatment pond showed
comparatively high level of organic carbon and organic matter than the control
pond.  The number of tomato fruit and their size were higher in the treatment
plots. Similarly the yield of onion from the treatment plots was higher than
the control plot. The total yield of fish from the treatment was 27.22kg. The
results on the analysis of expenditure and income indicated that the
integration of vegetable cultivation using fish pond water alone was more
profitable than the conventional method of vegetable cultivation with the
application of fertilizer.


Key words: Tilapia, Daily Growth
Rate, Specific Growth Rate, Weight Gain.


   View/get involved,
 [Post-Review Page]



APHA (1980). American Public Health Association, Standard Methods
for Examination of Water and Waste Water (20th ed) American Public Health
Association, Washington DC, USA. 1647.


Ayinla OA(2003). Integrated Fish Farming: A Veritable tool for
poverty alleviation/hunger eradication in the Niger Delta Region. Pp. 14-16 In:
A.A. Eyo and J.O Atanda (Eds). Conference proceedings of Fisheries Society of
Nigeria, Owerri, Nigeria 2003.


Boyd CE (1988).Water quality in warm water fish ponds. Auburn
University, Agricultural experiment station, R. Dennis Rouse , Director,
Auburn, Alabama.


Boyd CE(1982). Water quality management for pond fish culture.
Elsevier Scientific Publishing Company, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. 318 p.


Boyd CE, Wood CW and Thunjai T (2002). Aquaculture Pond Bottom
Soil Quality Management, Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research
Support Program. Nineteenth Annual Technical Report. Oregon State University.
Oregon, USA, 1-48 pp.


Brummett RE and Noble R( 1995).Aquaculture for African small
holders. ICLARM Technical Report 46. Manila,Philippines and Deutsche
Gesellshaft technische Zusammenarbeit,Eschborn,Germany,46pp


Brummett RE and Williams MJ (2000).The evolution of aquaculture in
African rural and economic development.Ecological Economics,33:193-203


Causton D  and Venus JC (1981). The biometry of plant
. London: Edward Arnold.


Diana JS, Lin CK and Jaiyen K (1994).
Supplemental feeding of tilapia in fertilized ponds. J. World Aquacult. Soc,
25: 497-506.


El-Sayed,A .F.M.2006.Tilapia culture. CABI


El-Sayed,AFM, El-Ghobashy A and Al-Amoudi M( 1996). Effects of
pond   depth and water temperature on the growth, mortality and body
composition of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.). Aquaculture Res, 27,


Erick OO, Mlingi FT, Nyonje BM , Charo-Karisa H and Munguti JM
(2013).Can integrated livestock-fish culture be a solution to east africa’s
food insecurity? a review.African journal of Food, Agriculture,Nutrition and
Development, ajfand, 13, 4:8058-8076.


Eyo AA, Ayanda JO and  Adelowo EO
(2006).Essentials of integrated fish farming. National Institute of Fresh Water
Fisheries Research, P.M.B 6006, New Bussa, Niger State 1-207


FAO (1995). Code   of Conduct
for Responsible Fisheries. Rome, FAO. 1995. 41 p. ISBN 92-5-103834-1


FAO (1995). Code of Conduct for
Responsible Fisheries. Rome, FAO. 1995. 41 p. ISBN 92-5-103834-1


Green BW(1992). Substitution of organic manure for pelleted feed
in tilapia production. Aquaculture, 101, 213-222.


Green BW, El Nagdy Z and Hebicha H (2002). Evaluation of Nile
tilapia pond management strategies in Egypt. Aquacult. Res, 33: 1037-1048.


Hunt R (1990). Basic growth analysis.
London: Unwin Hyman.


Jhingran VG (1982). Fish and fisheries of India. 2nd edition,
Hindustan Publishing Corporation, Delhi.


Kamal SM, Abdel Ghanny S and Abd-el Ali M M (2008). Effect of
nutrition and fertilization on production of Nile tilapia (O.niloticus)fingerlings
in concrete ponds.8th International Symposium on Tilapia in


Kapur K and Lal KK (1986).Relative potency of certain livestock
wastes for fish culture. In: Mclan, J. (ed.), Proc. First Asian Fisheries
Forum, Manila, Philippines.


Kapur K( 1984). Effect of organic wastes on the primary and
secondary levels of production in the treated waters. National Seminar on
organic waste Utilization and Vermi compositing. Sambalpur, AVP-11.


Kebede Alemu (2003).The growth performance of Oreochromis
 L. reared in fresh water ponds loaded with varying levels of
poultry manure. SINET: Ethiop.J. Sci, 26(1):17–23


Krumbien WC and Pettijohn FJ (1938). Manual of sedimentary
petrography. Application century crofts, New York, p


Lemma Desta, Prabhadevi L, Sreenivasa V and Tilahun Amede (2014).
Studies on the ecology of the paddy and fish co–culture system at Dembi Gobu
microwater shed at Bako, Ethiopia. IJFAS, 1(3): 49-53


Maiti SK (2004).Hand book of methods in environmental
studies.Vol.1.Water and waste water analysis.ABD publishers,Jaipur,India.p304


Olsen SR, Cole CV, Watanabe FS and Dean LA (1954). Estimation of
available phosphorus in soils by extraction with sodium bicarbonate. United
States Department of Agriculture
 Circ., p939.


Solomon EB, Yaron S and Matthews KR (2002). Transmission of
Escherichia coli O157:H7 from contaminated manure and irrigation water to
lettuce plant tissue and its subsequent internalization. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology 68, 397–400.


Sreenivasan V, Sampath and Paramasivam M (1979). Limnological
survey of Cauvery river system with particular reference to pollution
indicator. MAB Final report. P. 92.


Stickney RR(2005).Aquaculture : An Introductory Text. CABI
Publishing, UK. 265pp.


Strickland JDK  and   Parsons TR( 1972). A
practical hand book of sea water analysis. Bull. Fish Canada, 167: 310.


Tandon HLS (1993). Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, Waters
and Fertilizers. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organisation. 204-204A
Bhanot Corner, 1-2 Pamposh Enclave, New Delhi-11 0048 (India). |


Tandon HLS (1993). Methods of Analysis of Soils, Plants, Waters
and Fertilizers. Fertilizer Development and Consultation Organisation. 204-204A
Bhanot Corner, 1-2Pamposh Enclave, New Delhi-11 0048 (India). |


Timmons MB, Ebeling JM, Wheaton FW, Summerfelt ST and Vinci BJ
(2001). Recirculating Aquaculture Systems. NRAC Publication, Cayuga Aqua
Ventures, Ithaca. 34:151–154.


Verma NK, Singh AK Yadav R and Jha RK (2002).Study on water
quality of         cattle and pig manure fed
fish pond. In : Ecology and Ethology of Aquatic Biota (Ed.
Kumar, A.), 1:235-242, Daya Publishing House, New Delhi.


Walkley A and Black I A (1934). An examination of Degtjareff
method for determining soil organic matter and a proposed modification of the
chromic acid titration method. Soil Sci., 37:29-37.


Wetzel RG and Likens GE (2000) .Limnological analyses. Third
Edition, Springer-Verlag London Ltd. London. 73-289.


Wilber CG (1971). The biological aspects of water pollution.
Charles Thomas Publishers. U.S.A., 296 pp.


NK (1987). Utilization of Domestic Sewage and Livestock wastes for crop Fish
Culture, Ph.D. Thesis, Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *