Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8 (1), pp. 001-011, January 2018.

ISSN: 2276-7770  

Research Article

Manuscript Number: 010818002



of feeding different levels Azolla
pinnata, Polyalthia longifolia, Tithonia diversifolia, Moringa olifera,
Azadirachta indica
leaf meal infusion as an Organic Supplement on the
Performance and Nutrient Retention of Growing Grass cutters



Alagbe J.O. and Soares D. M.



Unit at Dan-malafia Farms Limited, Ogbomosho, Oyo State


This experiment was carried out to investigate the
effect of feeding different levels of Azolla
pinnata, Polyalthia longifolia, Tithonia diversifolia, Moringa olifera,
Azadirachta indica
leaf meal infusion (PMNWA) as an organic supplement on the
performance and nutrient retention of growing grass cutters. Experimental
parameters covered growth performance and nutrient retention. Twenty, three
weeks growing male grass cutters were randomly divided into five treatments
groups with four replicates, each of one grass cutter in a Completely
Randomized Design (CRD). Group 1 was fed basal diet without PMNWA, Group 2, 3,
4 and 5 were fed basal diets supplemented with PMNWA at levels of 5.00%, 10.0%,
15.0% and 20.0% respectively. The basal diet was formulated to meet the
nutritional requirements of growing grass cutters according to Wogar (2011),
the experiment lasted for 60 days and the results obtained showed that there
were significant at P<0.05 differences among all treatments in the values of
final live weight and feed conversion ratio . Results for feed intake, daily
water intake and nutrient retention (protein, fibre and fat) were not
significantly (P>0.05) affected with the inclusion of PMNWA.  No mortality was recorded throughout the
experimental period. Results obtained from this study showed that PMNWA is a
good quality test materials with high contents of micro-nutrients which can
improve the stability, palatability and shelf life of feed and its inclusion at
20.0%  level does not have any deleterious
effect on the general performance and health status of grass cutters

Keywords: ” Growing grass cutters, performance, nutrient retention, mortality

Post-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Post-Review Page]


Abou-Elezz, F., Sarmiento-Franco, L., Santos-Ricalde, R. and
Solorio-Sanchez, F. (2011): Nutritional effects of dietary inclusion of Leucaena leucocephala and Moringa oleifera leaf meal on Rhode
Island Red hens’ performance. Cub. J. Agri Sci., 45:162-169.


Akinola, S., T O Elufloye, O I Alatise et al (2009).
Toxicity studies of Tithonia diversifolia
A. Gray (Asteraceae) in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 122, Issue 2,
18 March 2009, Pages 410-415 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.12.007.


Alagbe, J.O. (2016). The nutritional evaluation of sweet
orange fruit peel meal (SOFPM) as a replacement for maize in the diet of weaner
grass cutters. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science Vol. 6(8), p. 27-282
December, 2016. Available online at http:/


Alagbe, J.O (2017). Effect of dietary inclusion of Polyalthia longifolia leaf meal compared
to antibiotics on the nutrient retention, immune response and serum
biochemistry of broiler chickens. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences.
GJAS, Vol. 7(3), May 2017.


Alalade OA and Iyayi EA (2006). Chemical composition and
feeding value of Azolla (Azolla pinnata)
meal for egg type chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science5: 137-141.


Alawa, J.P and Umunna, J.P (1993). Alternative feed
formulation in the development countries: prospects for utilization of
agro-industrial by-products. Journal of Animal Production Research 13(2):63-68.


Aruna, M. and Srilatha, N. (2012): Water clarification using
Moringa oleifera Lam.seed as a natural coagulant. Current Biotica., 5(4):


Anupam, Ghosh, Bidnus, Kanti Das., Soroj, Chatterjee and
Goutam Chandra (2008). Antibacterial potentiality and phytochemical analysis of
mature leaves of P. longifolia. The
South Pacific Journal of Natural Science, Vol 26, 2008.


A.O.A.C (1990). Association of Official Analytical Chemists.
Official Methods of Analysis 15th Edition Washington, D.C Pp69-77


Asbey, E.O.A (1974). Some ecological and economic aspects of
the grass cutters (Thyronomys swinderianus)
Mammalian, Rodentia, Hystricomorphal in Ghana Unpbi-Ph.D Thesis of Aberdeen,
UK. Pp 305.


Ashong, J. and Brown, D. (2011): Safety and efficacy of Moringa oleifera powder for growing
poultry. J. Anim. Sci., 89: 84.


Basak B, Pramanik AH, Rahmnan MS, Taradar SU and Roy BC
(2002). Azolla (Azolla pinnata) as a
feed ingredient in broiler ration. International Journal of Poultry Science, 1:


Befikadu B, Pramanik AH, Rahmnan MS, Taradar SU and Roy BC
(2008). Azolla (Azolla pinnata) as a
feed ingredient in broiler ration. International Journal of Poultry Science, 1:


Biplob. B., M.D Ahsan Habib Pramanik., Mohammed Saddiqur
Rahman., Sharif Uddin Tarafdar and Bimol Chandra Roy (2002) Azolla as a feed
ingredient in broiler ration. Int’l Jou. of Poul. Sci 1(1); 29-34, 2002.


Biswas, K. I., Chattopadhyay, R., Banejee, K and U.
Bandyspadhyay (2002). Biological activities and medicinal properties of Neem.
Curr. Sci. 82(11): 1336-1345.


Bolu, S.A.O., Sola-Ojo, O.A., Olorunsanya and Idris, K
(2009). Effect of graded levels of dried pawpaw seed on
performance,haematology, serum biochemistry and carcass evaluation of broilers.
International Journal of Poultry Science 8(9):905-909, 2009.


Bosch, C. (2004): Moringa
Lam. Pp 75.


Chang, F.R., Hwang, T.L., Yang, Y.L., C.E Wu. C.C, Issa,
H.H., Wu Y.C Planta Medica (2006). 72:1344-1347.


Chattopadhyay, R. R (1996). Possible mechanism of
anti-hyperglycemic effects of Neem leaf extracts. Part IV. General
Pharmacology, 27: 431-434.


Chen,C.Y., Chang, F.R., Shih, Y.C., Hsiseh, T. J., Chia Y.C
(2006). Cytotoxic constituents of P.
var. pendula: Journal of natural products 2006. 63: 1475-8.


Djakalia, B., Guichard B, and Soumaila, D. (2011): Effect of
Moringa oleifera on growth
performance and health status of young post-weaning rabbits. Res. J. Poult.
Sci., 4: 7- 11.


Duncan, D.B. (1955). Multiple Range and Multiple F-Test
Biometrics 11:1-42.


Fafiolu, A.O., Oduguwa, O.O., Bamgbose, A.M., Oso, A.O.,
Isah, O.A., Olatunji, J.E.N and Jegede, A.V (2006) Feeding value of Mango leaf
(Mangifera indica) for growing
rabbits. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 5(10):800-804.


Faizi, S., Azher, R. A., Khan, Tauseef, S and Ahmad, A
(2003). New antimicrobial alkaloids from the roots of P. longifolia var. pendula. Planta Med. 69-350-5.


Foidl, N., Makkar, H. and Becker, K. (2001): The potential
of Moringa Oleifera for agricultural
and industrial uses. Pp 45-76. Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, 2014):
Moringa Traditional crop of the month.


Gakuya, D., Mbugua, P., Mwaniki, S., Kiama S., Muchemi, G.
and Njuguna, A. (2014): Effect of Supplementation of Moringa oleifera (LAM) Leaf Meal in Layer Chicken Feed. Int. J.
Poult. Sci., 13 (7): 379-384.


Girish, D and Shankara, M (2008). Antibody activity and quantitative
estimation of azadirachtin and nimbin in Azdirachta
A. Juss grown in foothills of Nepal Afr. Jou’l Biotech. 8(13):


Hossein, Abbasi., Alireza, Seidavi., Wuyi, Liu and Leila,
Asadpour (2015). Investigation on the effect of different levels of dried sweet
orange pulp on the performance, carcass characteristics, physiological and
biochemical parameters of chickens. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences (2015)
22, 139-146.


Ibironke, Adetolu Ajayi and Emmanuel, Nnamdi Ifedi (2014).
Proximate analysis and toxicological studies of P. longifolia seed flour in dietary formulation of albino rats.
America Chemical Science Journal. 15(3): 1-12, 2014.


Kakengi, A. M. V., Shen, M.N., Sarwart, S.V and Fujihara, T
(2007). Can Moringa be used as protein supplement to ruminant diet? Asian –
Australian Journal of Animal Science. 18 (1): 42-47.


Kareru, P.G, Keriko, J.M, Kenji, G.M, Thiong’o, G.T,
Gachanja, A.N, Mukiira, H.N (2010) Antimicrobial activities of skin care
preparations from plant extract. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary
and Alternative Medicines, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2010, pp. 214-218.


Katkar, K.V., Suthat, A.C., Chauhan, V.S (2010).
Pharmacognosy Review. 2010; 4, 62-68.


Liasu M O and Ayandele A A (2008) Antimicrobial activity of
aqueous and ethanolic extracts from Tithonia
and Bryum coronatum
collected from Ogbomoso, Oyo State. Nigeria. Adv. in Nat. Appl. Sci., 2(1):
31-34, 2008.


Martin, G.H (1984). Bush meat in Nigeria as a natural
resource with environmental implications. Environmental Conservations.


Mahmoud Aly and Hanan. H Balkhy (2012) .The prevalence of
antimicrobial resistance in clinical isolates from gulf corporation council
countries. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2012 1: 26. https://


Meduna, A.J (2002). Preliminary observations on cane rat (Thryonomys swinderianus, Termminck)
feeding and breeding of the Federal College of Forestry, Ibadan. Proceedings of
the 27th Annual Conference on Nigerian Society of Animal Production,
March 17-21. Federal University of Technology, Akure pp: 304-305.


Melesse, A., Tiruneh, W. and Negesse, T. (2011): Effects of
feeding Moringa stenopetala leaf meal
on nutrient intake and growth performance of Rhode Island Red chicks under
tropical climate. Trop Subtrop Agroeco., 14: 485-492.


Moyo, B., Masika, P. Hugo, A. and Muchenje, V. (2011):
Nutritional characterization of Moringa (Moringa
Lam.) leaves. African J. Biotech., 10(60): 1292-1293.


Murro, J., Muhikambele, V. and Sarwatt, S. (2003): Moringa oleifera leaf meal can replace
cottonseed cake in the concentrate mix fed with Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay for growing sheep.
Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 15(11):234-236.


NRC (National Research Council). (1991). Micro- livestock
little known small ruminants with a promising economic future. National Academy
Press, Washington D.C .Pp 192-282.


Nuhu, F. (2010): Effect of Moringa leaf meal on nutrient
digestibility, growth, carcass and Blood indices of weaner rabbits. Master’s
Thesis. Kwame Nkurumah University of Science and Technology. Kumasi, Ghana.


Obafemi C.A, Sulaimon T.O., et al (2006) Antimicrobial
activity of extracts and a germacranolidetype sesquiterpene lactone from Tithonia diversifolia leaf extract.
African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 5 (12), pp. 1254-1258, 16 June 2006.


Odedire, N and Oloidi (2014) Studies of Phytochemical
Screening, Acute Toxicity and Anti-Diarrhoeal Effect of Aqueous Extract of
Kenyan Tithonia diversifolia Leaves
in Rats. British Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 3(3): 127-134, 2014.


Oduro, I., Ellis, W.O and Owusu, D (2008). Nutritional
potential of two leaf vegetables: Moringa
and Ipomea batatas leaves, Scientific and Eassy. 3(2): 57-60.


Ogbuewu, I. P., Odoemenam, V. U., Obikaonu, H. O., Opara, M.
N., Emenalom, O. O., Uchegbu, M. C., Okoli, I. C ., Esonu, B. O and Iloje, M. U
(2011). The growing importance of Neem in Agriculture, Industry, Medicine and
Environment: A Review”. Research Jou’l of Medicinal Plants 5(3), 230-245.


Ojabo, L.D., Adenkola, A.Y and Odaudu, G.I (2012). The
effect of dried sweet orange fruit peel meal on the growth

performance and haematology of rabbits.


Ojewuyi, O.B., Ajiboye, T.O., Adebanjo, E. O., Balogun, A
and Mohammed, A. O (2014) Proximate composition, phytochemical and mineral
content of young and mature P. longifolia
Sonn. Leaves. Fountain Journal of Natural and Applied Sciences: 2014; 3(1):


Olatunji, A.K.., Alagbe, J.O and Hammed, M.A (2016). Effect
of varying levels of Moringa olifera
meal on performance and blood profile of weaner rabbits. International Journal
of Science and Research, ISSN (online): 2319-7064.


Olugbemi, T., Mutayoba, S. and Lekule, F. (2010a): Effect of
Moringa (Moringa oleifera) inclusion
in cassava based diets fed to broilers chickens. Inter. J. Poult. Sci., 9:363-


Omole, A.J., Ogunleke, F.O., Kehinde, A.S and Popoola, Y.A
(2011). Small and medium scale grass cutter farming.

Back to Agric series. Green Choice Agric Publications. Pp
1-13, ISBN – 978-978-48110-0-9.


Omole, A.J., Ogunleke, F.O., Kehinde, A.S and Popoola, Y.A
(2012). Small and Medium Scale Grass cutter Farming. Green choice Agric
Publication. Pages 1-5.


Onimisi, P.A., Omage, J.J and Maiguzo, K (2007). Evaluation
of Moringa leaf meal as a protein source in rabbit diets, paper presented at
the 32nd Annual conference of Nigeria society of Animal production,
Calabar March 18-21. Pp 293-294.


Pannaerker S (1988). Azolla as a livestock and poultry feed.
Livestock Adviser, 13: 22-26.


Phadnis, G., Richard, S.S and Denise, R. F (1998).
Lipponcotts illustrated Reviews Biochemistry 3rd ed., Lippincott
Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia. 335-388.


Prateek, L and Miller, N.D (2014). Antioxidant flavonoids
structure function and clinical usage. Alt. Med. Rev. 1:103-111.


Preston, T.R., Leng, R.A (1987). Matching ruminant
production system with available resources in the tropics and sub- tropics.
Penambul Books Limited: Armidale NSW, Australia.


Querubin LJ, Alcantara PF and Luis ES (1986). Chemical
composition and feeding value of Azolla in broiler ration. Philippines Journal
of Veterinary and Animal Science, 13: 46.


Robson Miranda da Gama, Marcelo Guimarães, Luiz Carlos de
Abreu, José Armando-Junior (2014). Phytochemical screening and antioxidant
activity of ethanol extract of Tithonia
(Hemsl) A. Gray dry flowers. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2014;
4(9): 740-742.


Rungeler P, Lyss G et al (1998) Study of three sesquiterpene
lactones from Tithonia diversifolia
on their anti-inflammatory activity using the transcription factor NF-kappa B
and enzymes of the arachidonic acid pathway as targets. Planta Med. 1998 Oct;


Saleem, R., Ahmed, M., Azeem, M., Khan, R.A and Rasool, N
(2005). Hypotensive activity and toxicology of constituents from root bark of P. longifolia var.pendula Phytother Res.


Shoukat, Ara., S. Abdul., M.T Bandry and Manzoor A Khan
(2015). Feeding potential of aquatic fern Azolla in broiler chicken. Jou. of
Poul. Sci & Tech Pg 15-19.


Sombatsiri, K., Ermel, K and Schmutterer, H (1995). Other
meliaceous plants containing ingredients for integrated pest management and
further purpose. In: Schumutter, H (Ed.), the neem tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss and other meliaceous plants. VCH,
Germany, pp. 585-597.


Steel, R. G.D and Torrie, J.H (1980). Principles and
procedures of sataistics. A biometrical approach, 2nd edn
McGraw-Hill Book Coy. NY. USA.


Subapriya, M and Nagini, O (2005). Antibacterial effect of
Neem Oil on multidrug resistant bacteria isolated from human infections. Int’l
Jou’l of Biological & Medical Research, 4(4), 3544-3546.


Toshihiro Mura, Kosuke Nosaka et al (2005) Antidiabetic
Effect of Nitobegiku, the Herb Tithonia
, in KK-Ay Diabetic Mice. 
Biol. Pharm. Bull. 28(11) 2152—2154 (2005).


Victor B Owoyele, Caleb O. Wuraola et al (2004) Studies on
the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Tithonia diversifolia leaf extract.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 90, Issues 2-3, February 2004, Pages 317-321
/ doi:10.1016/j.jep.2003.10.010.


Vos, A.D. (1978) Game as food, a report on its significance
in Africa and Latin America Unasylver, (4):2-12.
www.inusp.ifo/ajol/journals.jgsa/vol 3no3abs/.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.