Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8 (9), pp. 179-196, 2018.

ISSN: 2276-7770 

Research Article

Manuscript Number: 082218121



Impact of Improved Wheat Varieties Adoption on
Productivity: Disparity among Agroecological Zones of Ethiopia





 Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, Addis
Ababa, Ethiopia.


This study examines the agroecologic zonal disparity in the impact of adoption of improved wheat varieties on productivity using 1,611 sample farm households in four major administrative regions of Ethiopia. Propensity score matching (PSM) technique was employed since it is an increasingly utilized standard approach for evaluating impacts using observational data. It is found that adoption of improved wheat varieties doesn’t have homogeneous positive and significant impact on productivity growth in all of the agroecologic zones considered. Thus, the study recommends that the agricultural research and extension system of the country should further consider the various differences that exist among different agroecologic zones and other areas of the country so as to generate and disseminate suitable improved agricultural technologies and information to each areas.

Keywords: Impact, Wheat, Improved Varieties, Ethiopia.

Post-review Rundown

involved, click


Abate T. , Shiferaw B.,  Menkir A. , Wegary D. , Kebede Y., Tesfaye
K., Kassie M., Bogale G., Tadesse B. and Keno T. (2015). Factors That
Transformed Maize Productivity in Ethiopia. Food Sec. (2015) 7:965–981.


Abegaz G. (2011). Cereal Productivity in Ethiopia: An
Analysis Based on ERHS Data. Ethiopian
Journal of Economics
, Volume XX
No. 2, October 2011.


Admassie A. and Ayele G, (2004). Adoption of Improved
Technology in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI),
Research Report 3.


Asfaw S., Shiferaw B. and Simtowe F. (2010). Does
Technology Adoption Promote Commercialization? Evidence from Chickpea
Technologies in Ethiopia.


Ayele G., Bekele M. and Zekeria S. (2006).
Productivity and Efficiency of Agricultural Extension Package in Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Research Report 5.


Bor O. and Bayaner A. (2009). How Responsive is the
Crop Yield to producer prices? A panel data approach for the case of Turkey.
NEW MEDIT N. 4/2009.


Cochran, W. G. and D. B. Rubin. (1973). ‘Controlling
Bias in Observational Studies: A Review,’ Sankhya, ser. A, 35:4, 417–446.


CSA. 2015. Major results of the 2007 GDP estimates.
Central Statistical Agency (CSA), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.


D. Zeng, Alwang J., Norton G.W., Shiferaw B., Jaleta
M. and Yirga C. (2015). Ex post Impacts of Improved Maize Varieties on Poverty
in Rural Ethiopia. Agricultural Economics 46 (2015) 1–12.


Elias A.,Nohmi M., Yasunobu K. & Ishida A. (2013).
Effect of Agricultural Extension Program on Smallholders’ Farm Productivity:
Evidence from Three Peasant Associations in the Highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Agricultural Science, Vol. 5, No. 8, 2013.


Endale K. (2011). Fertilizer Consumption and
Agricultural Productivity in Ethiopia. Ethiopian Development Research Institute
(EDRI), Working Paper 003.


Endalkachew T. (2011). Impact of Soil and Water
Conservation on Crop Productivity in the Highlands of Ethiopia. A Thesis
Submitted to the School of Graduate Studies of Addis Ababa University in
Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Masters of Science in
Economics, November, 2011.


GebreEyesus A. (2015). A Study on Human Resource
Management, Staff Turnover and Incentives in the National Agricultural Research
System (NARS). Ethiopian Development Research Institute (EDRI), Research Report


Gebre-Selassie A. and Bekele T. A Review of Ethiopian
Agriculture: Roles, Policy and Small-scale Farming Systems. Global Growing


Gebru A. (2006). The Determinants of Modern
Agricultural Inputs Adoption and Their Productivity in Ethiopia (The Case of
Amhara and Tigray Regions). A Thesis Submitted to the School of Graduate
Studies of Addis Ababa University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements
for the Degree of Master of Science in Economics (Economic Policy Analysis),
July, 2006.


and Rozo S. (2009). The Impact of Technology Adoption
on Agricultural Productivity: The Case of the Dominican Republic.
Inter-American Development Bank. Office of Evaluation and OversightWorking
Paper: OVE/WP-05/09. September, 2009.


Hailu B.K., Abrha B.K. and Weldegiorgis K.A. (2014).
Adoption and Impact of Agricultural Technologies on Farm Income: Evidence from
Southern Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. International Journal of Food and
Agricultural Economics Vol. 2 No. 4, (2014), pp. 91-106.


Heckman, J., H. Ichimura, and P. Todd. (1998).
Matching as an Econometric Evaluation Estimator. The Review of Economic Studies
65(2): 261-294.


Kelemu K. (2017). Determinants of Farmers Access to
Information about Improved Wheat Varieties: Case of Farmers in Major Wheat
Growing Regions of Ethiopia. International
Journal of Research in Agricultural Sciences
, Volume 4, Issue 1, ISSN (Online): 2348 – 3997.


Ketema M., and Kassa B. (2016). Impact of Technology
on Smallholder Wheat Production in Bale Highlands of Ethiopia: Application of
Output Decomposition Model. Turkish
Journal of Agriculture- Food Science and Technology
, 4(6): 446-454.


Mann M. and Warner J. (2017). Ethiopian Wheat Yield
and Yield Gap Estimation: A Spatially Explicit Small Area Integrated Data
Approach. Field Crops Research 201 (2017) 60–74.


Matsumoto T. and Yamano T. (2010). The Impacts of
Fertilizer Credit on Crop Production and Income in Ethiopia. National Graduate
Institute for Policy Studies (GRIPS) Policy Research Center Discussion Paper
10-23, GRIPS, Tokyo.


MoFED. (2003). Rural Development Policy and
Strategies. Economic Policy and Planning, Ministry of Finance and Economic
Development, Addis Ababa.


Mulugeta T. and Hundie B. (2012). Impacts of Adoption
of Improved Wheat Technologies on Households’ Food Consumption in Southeastern
Ethiopia. Selected Poster prepared for presentation at the International
Association of Agricultural Economists (IAAE) Triennial Conference, Foz do
Iguaçu, Brazil, 18-24 August, 2012.


Nigussie A., Kedir A., Adisu A., Belay G., Gebrie D.
and Desalegn K. (2015). Bread Wheat Production in Small Scale Irrigation Users
Agro-Pastoral Households in Ethiopia: Case of Afar and Oromia Regional State. Journal of Development and Agricultural
, Vol. 7(4), pp.


Olmos A. (2015). Propensity Scores: A Practical
Introduction Using R. Journal of
MultiDisciplinary Evaluation
, Vol. 11,
Issue 25, 2015.


Rosenbaum, P. and D. Rubin. (1983). The Central Role
of the Propensity Score in Observational Studies for Causal Effects. Biometrika 70:1, 41–55.


Rosenbaum, P. and D. Rubin. (1985). Constructing a
Control Group Using Multivariate Matched Sampling Methods that Incorporate the
Propensity Score. The American
Statistician Association
, February1985, Vol. 39, No. 1.


Rubin, D. B. (1977). Assignment to Treatment Group on
the Basis of a Covariate. Journal of
Educational Statistics
, 2, 1-26.


S. Tesfaye, B. Bedada and Y. Mesay. (2016). Impact of
Improved Wheat Technology Adoption on Productivity and Income in Ethiopia.
African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 24,
Issue Supplement s1, pp. 127-135.


Taffesse A., Dorosh P. and Asrat S. (2012). Crop
Production in Ethiopia: Regional Patterns and Trends. Summary of ESSP II
Working Paper 16, “Crop Production in Ethiopia: Regional Patterns and Trends”.


Tsusaka T. and Otsuka K. (2013). The Changes in The Effects
of Temperature and Rainfall on Cereal Crop Yields in Sub-Saharan Africa: A
Country Level Panel Data Study, 1989 to 2004. Environmental Economics, Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *