Getachew

Getachew

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 7 (1), pp. 019-031, January 2017.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 

Research Articles

Manuscript Number: 122616223


(DOI:
http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2017.1.122616223)

 

Status of Forest Coffee (Coffea arabica L.) Diseases in the
Afromontane Rainforest Areas of Ethiopia: A review

 

Sihen
Getachew

 

Jimma University, Collage
of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Horticulture and Plant Science
Department, 

P O Box 307, Jimma, Ethiopia.


Abstract


Ethiopia, as the center of origin for Coffea arabica, hosts a large diversity of germplasm. Besides
drastic reduction in the forest cover and low average yield, the crop is
attacked by several diseases, among that coffee leaf rust; coffee berry disease
and coffee wilt disease are the major fungal diseases contributing to reduced
yield in the country. In this article, the main objective is to provide an
overview on current status of major forest coffee diseases prevalence and
distributions recorded in afromontane rain forest area of Ethiopia; and to
indicate the incidence and severity of forest coffee diseases in the forest
coffee populations and elucidates some basic management studies and efforts
made to manage those diseases occurred over the past 10 years. The incidences
of diseases are reviewed based on different research out puts that was conducted
in the afromontane rainforests of the southeast (Harenna) and southwest (Bonga,
Berhane-Kontir, Yayu) of Ethiopia. CLR incidences in Ethiopia were present in
all forest coffee areas with highest between January and March and lows between
June and October with incidence varied from 0.36 to 18.5% in Bonga, 1.8 to 49%
in Berhane-Kontir, and 11.8 to 62.6% in Yayu forest coffee populations. The
corresponding severity ranged from 0.08 – 1.2%, 0.24 – 1.7% and 0.91 – 3.3%
whereas the
Sporulation Lesion density varied from 0.08 – 1.9, 0.33 – 3.65 and 1.5 – 5.9% in that
order. Leaf rust was low (18.5%) in July 2007 and high (62.6%) in January 2008.
CBD was present mostly in Bonga (40.0%) and Yayu (26.3%), but less frequent in
Harenna (18.6%) and Berhane-Kontir (6.0%). CWD as a recently developed disease
in Arabica coffee could be detected ranging from during the dry season of 2012,
the incidence ranged respectively from 0 to 15.4%, 7.3 to 37.6%, 0 to 22.3%,
and 26.4 to 28.3% in Bonga, Berhane-Kontir, Yayu and Harenna. During the wet
season of 2012, the average disease incidence was 11.9, 29.2, 13.2 and 27.7% at
the respective forest sites. Significant variation also observed among each
coffee tree within a location and season significantly interacted with both
location and coffee trees within a location. As researcher indicated in 2010
heterogeneity of forest coffee populations to those diseases in the field under
native agro-ecology provides an opportunity to develop resistant varieties
among the enormous forest coffee genetic resources and at the same time calls
for strategic multi-site in situ conservation to rescue and maintain the
present genetic variation and enhance co-evolutionary processes. From this
review, in the case of CBD and CWD selections of tolerant Arabica accessions
are being pursued from local landraces in afromountan rain forest areas of
Ethiopia that
undoubtedly needs detailed research
work on screening tolerant variety against to the major diseases.

 

Key Word: Coffea
Arbica
; Diseases; Ethiopia; Afromontane rainforests;
Incidence

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