Gwimmi Et Al


Gwimmi et al

Journal of Agricultural Sciences

9(2), pp. 242-249, 2019


©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)





of Agroforestry for Livelihood Improvement in Wamakko Local Government Area,
Sokoto State, Nigeria


D.P.1; Umar, I.1; Nafiu A.K.1; Atiku, M.1;
Ambursa A.S.1; Sokoto M.B.2; Wele, H.K.3


1, Kebbi
State University of Science and Technology, Aliero, Department of Forestry
& Fisheries.

2, Usmanu Dandodiyo
University Sokoto, Department of Forestry and Environment.

3, College
of Agricuiture, Zuru. Kebbi State.





Article No.:052419097

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.052419097



The study
assessed the contribution of agroforestry for livelihood improvement in
Wamakko Local Government area of Sokoto State. Four (4) districts were
purposively selected for the study based on the dominance of agroforestry
practices in the study areas. Two villages were randomly selected from each
of the selected districts. From each village, 30 farmers were conveniently
selected given a total sample size of 240 respondents.
Structured questionnaire were administered,
retrieved and analysed.
Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.
Results of the study indicated that, majority (70.8%) of the farmers were
within the age bracket of 15 to 30 years and 78.3 percent were married and
they had attended at least one form of formal education or the other.
Furthermore, 79 percent source information about climate change from family
and friends, while 52.1 percent stated that high temperature was the main
climate change experience they had.
Majority (wms=3.87) of the farmers stated that dispersed tree on
cropland was highly practiced.
To encourage agroforestry practice, incentives through the distribution
of improved tree seedlings would assist greatly.


Submitted: 24/05/2019

Accepted:  28/05/2019



*Corresponding Author

Gwimmi D.P.

E-mail: gwimidave@



livelihood; Socio-economic characteristic



Return to Content       View [Full Article – PDF]  

[Full Article – HTML]              [Full Article – EPUB]

Post-Publication Peer-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Peer-review]




Adamu, S.S. (1997).
Socio-economic factors associated with rural-urban migration in Nigeria. A case
of Maiduguri. Sixth Urban Symposium: 74-76.


Aggarwal, P.K. and
Mall, R.K. (2000). Climate change and rice yields in diverse- agro environments
of India. II. Effect of uncertainties in scenarios and crop models on impact
assessment’ Climate Change. 5(2): 331-343.


Ango, A. K.,
Abdullahi, A. N. and Abubakar, B. B. (2011). Role of socio-economic parameters
in Determining the Efficacy of  Urban
Agriculture in providing Food Security in Birninkebbi Metropolitan Area, Kebbi
State, North Western Nigeria. International research.Journal of Agric Science.
1(6): 185- 192.


Anley, Y., Bogale, A.
and Haile-Gabriel, A. (2007). Adoption decision and use intensity of soil and
water conservation measures by small holder subsistence farms in Debo district,
western Ethiopia. Cited in Abdullahi A. S. (2014).Production and marketing of
honey and shear butter in Zuru local Government Area Kebbi State, Nigeria. M.Sc.
Dissertation, Department of Forestry and Environment, Faculty of Agriculture,
Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto State Nigeria.


Garrity, D. (2004).
World Agroforestry and the achievement of the millennium development Goals. Agroforestry
systems. 9(61): 5-7.


Glover, E. K. and Elsiddig,
E. A. (2012) The causes and Consequences of Environmental Changes in Gedaref,
Sudan. Land Degradation & Development Journal. 23(4): 339–349.


Lin, B.B. (2007). Agroforestry
management as an adaptive strategy against potential microclimate extremes in
coffee agriculture. Agricultural and
Forest Meteorology
. (144): 85-94.


B.B. (2010). The role of agroforestry in reducing water loss through soil
evaporation and crop transpiration in coffee agroecosystems. Agricultural and
Forest Meteorology. (150) 510-518.


Montagnini, F. and
Nair, P.K.R. (2004). Carbon sequestration: An underexploited environmental
benefit of agroforestry systems. Agroforestry Systems. 5(61): 281-295.


(2016):(National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency)  Map of Wamako Local Government Area in
Sokoto, Nigeria  Retrieved 4/5/2016


NPCN (2011).National
Population Commission of Nigeria. Sokoto (State, Nigeria) – Population
Statistics and Location in Maps.
2id=NGA034021. Retrieved 3/08/ 2016.


Nyangena, W.
(2007).Social determinants of soil and water in rural Kenya environment,
development and sustainability. Cited in Abdullahi A. S. (2014).Production and
marketing of honey and shearbutter in Zuru local Government Area Kebbi State,
Nigeria. M.Sc. Dissertation Department of Forestry and Environment, Faculty of
Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodio University, Sokoto State Nigeria.


Ogungbile, A. O.,
Tabo, R. and Rahman, S. A. (2002).Factors affecting the adoption of ICSVIII and
ICSV400 Sorghum varieties in Guinea and Sudan Savanna of Nigeria.The plant
Scientist. 4(3): 21-32.


Olarinde, L. O.,
Ajao, A. O. and Okunnola, S. O. (2008).Determinants of technical efficiency in
beekeeping farms in Oyo State, Nigeria.A Stochastic frontier approach. Research
Journal of Agriculture and Biological Science. 4 (1): 65 – 69.`


Onubuogu, G.C., Chidebelu,
S. and Eboh, E. C. (2013). Enterprise type, size and allocative Efficiency of
Broiler production Imo State, Nigeria. International  Journal of Applied Research Technology. 2(6):


Rogers, E. M. (2003).
Diffusion of Innovations (Fifth ed.). New York: The Free Press. (7): 67-68.


Roger, B., Longtau,
S., Hassan, U. and M. Walsh (2006). The Role of Traditional Rulers in Conflict
Prevention and Mediation in Nigeria: Interim Report. Prepared for DFID, Nigeria
Prepared for DFID, Nigeria. 51-60.


Schoeneberger, M.M.
(2009). Agroforestry: working trees for sequestering carbon in agricultural
lands. Agroforestry Systems. 6(75): 27-37.


Sokoto State Ministry
of Information, Youths, Sports and Culture, (SSMIYSC) (2013).Sokoto State
Diary.Sokoto State printing press Sokoto.1-29.


Thangata, P. H., and
Alavalapati, J. R. R. (2003). Agroforestry adoption in southern Malawi: the
case of mixed intercropping of Gliricidiasepium and maize. Agricultural System.
78(1): 57-71.  


World Bank.(2000).
World Development Report 2000. Oxford University Press, Oxford 68-69.


Cite this Article: Gwimmi, DP; Umar, I; Nafiu AK; Atiku, M;
Ambursa AS; Sokoto MB; Wele, HK (2019). Contribution of Agroforestry for
Livelihood Improvement in Wamakko Local Government Area, Sokoto State,
Nigeria. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 9(2): 242-249,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *