Omovbude Et Al


Omovbude et al

Journal of Agricultural Sciences

9(2), pp. 146-154, 2019


©2019, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)





of Poultry Manure and Spent Mushroom Substrate on Soil, Weed and Maize
Performance in an Ultisol



*Omovbude, S., Udom, B.E. and Udensi,  U.E



Department of Crop
and Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Port Harcourt, P. M. B.
5323, Choba, Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.






Article No.: 033119060

Type: Research

DOI: 10.15580/GJAS.2019.2.033119060



Field experiment
was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the University of Port
Harcourt, Rivers State to determine effects of poultry manure and spent
mushroom substrate on soil, weed and maize performance in an Ultisol. The
experiment consisted of five treatments namely: control (0 tons/ha), 5 tons /
ha of poultry manure (PM5), 10 tons / ha of poultry manure (PM10),
2.5 tons / ha of poultry manure + 2.5 tons / ha of spent mushroom substrate
(PM2.5 + SWS2.5) and 5 tons / ha of poultry manure + 5
tons / ha of spent mushroom substrate (PM5 + SWS5). The
treatments were laid out in randomized complete design
(RCBD) and replicated four times. Result showed that
density ranged from 1.18 g cm-3 for PM5 to 1.35 g cm-3
for the control
, total
porosity ranged from 21.22% for the control to 34.62% for PM5, saturated
hydraulic conductivity ranged from
12.96 cm/hr for the control to 23.13 cm/hr for PM10.Aggregates stability ranged from 0.587 mm for the
control to 0.784 mm for PM10. Poultry manure and spent mushroom
substrate significantly (P < 0.05) increased soil organic carbon, pH and
total N compared with the control. At 12 weeks after sowing (WAS) plots that
received 5 tons/ha tends to have better weed suppression than other
treatments.  Plots that received 10
tons/ha of poultry manure produced the tallest plants while plots that
received 5tons/ha of poultry manure had the highest leaf area index and grain
yield when compared to other treatments. Since the application of poultry
manure at 5 tons/ha can greatly improve soil physico-chemical properties,
suppressed weed growth which led to higher grain yield of maize, it is thus
recommended to farmers in the area of study.


Submitted: 31/03/2019

Accepted:  03/04/2019

Published: 25/04/2019


*Corresponding Author

Omovbude, S.

E-mail: sundayomovbude@

Phone: +2348053186814



manure, spent mushroom substrate, soil, weed, maize performance, ultisol



Return to Content       View [Full Article – PDF]  

[Full Article – HTML]              [Full Article – EPUB]

Post-Publication Peer-review Rundown

View/get involved, click [Peer-review]




Adeli A, Tewolde H, Sistani ICR
and Rowe D.E. (2009). Broiler litter fertilizer and cropping
system impacts on Soil Properties.
Agron. J. 110: 1304-1310.


Agba OA, Ubi BE, Abam P , Ogbechi J, Akeh M, Odey S,
Ogar N  (2012).
of Agronomic Performance of Maize (Zea mays L.) under Different Rates of
Poultry Manure Application in an Ultisol of Obubra, Cross River State, Nigeria.  Int J Agric For 2(4): 138-144


Andrew SS, Karlen DL and
Combardela C.A (2004). The Soil management Assessment
framework: A Quantitative soil quality evaluation method.
Soil Sci. Soc. oj Amer. J. 29:


Ano AA (1991). Maize quality and
utilization project, International institute of Tropical
Agric rl mre (Ibadan), P. 19.


Anorvey VY,  
Asiedu EK  and  Dapaah HK (2018).  Growth and Yield of Maize as Influenced by
Using Lumax 537.5 SE for Weed Control in the Transitional Agro-ecological Zone
of Ghana. Int J Plant & Soil Sci 21(2): 1-11,


Binang WB, Shiyam JO, Uko AE, Ntia JD,  Okpara DA, Ojikpong TO, . Ntun OE and Ekeleme
F (2016). Influence of Gender and Spacing on WeedSmothering Potentials
of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfairiaoccidentalis Hook F.) In Southeastern
Nigeria. J. Applied Life Sciences International 8(4): 1-10.


Bitzer CC and Sims JT (1988). Estimating the availability of nitrogen in
broiler litter manure
through laboratory and field studies.
Environ. Qual,


Black GR and Hartge KH (1986).
Bulk density . In: Klate, A: (ed).
Method of
oil Analysis.
Pan 1,2nd ed. ASA-SSSA, Madison, WI. Pp. 91-100.


Bremner JM and Mulvaney .S
(1982). Total nitrogen, In: A.L Page (ed.)
of soil
analysis. Fart 2., 2nd ed. Agron. Monogr, No. 9. ASA and SSSA.
WI. 595-


 Crotser MP and Witt WW (2000). Effect of Glycine max canopy characteristics, G.
max interference and weed-free period on Solanum  ptycanthum growth. Weed Sci. 48: 20-26.


Dekissa T, Short I and Allen J.
(2008). Effect of soil Amendment with compost on growth
and water use efficiency of amaranthus. In: Proceedings of THE UCOWR INTWR
Animal conference: International water Resources: Challenges for 21st
Century and water
Resources Education, July 22-24, 2008, Durham, N.C.


Flint LE and Flint AL (2002).
Pore size distribution. In: Method of Soil Analysis, Part I.
Physical Method (Done, J.H and Topp, G.C, eds).
Soil Sci.
Soc. Amer, Madison,


FORMECU (Forestry Management
Evaluation and Co-ordination Unit) (1998).
of Vegetation and Land Use Changes in Nigeria.


Gee GW and Bauder JW (1986).
Particle size analysis methods of soil Analysis.
Part I
A. edj,2nd ed. Agron. Monogr.9. ASA-ISSA. Madison, WI. 383-411.


Glauninger J and  Holzner W (1982). Interference between weeds
and crops: a review of literature. In: Biology
and ecology of weeds
(pp. 149-159).Springer Netherlands.


MA, Ado SG and Mani H  (2002. Influence
of Nitrogen management and planting date on the performance of popcorn in the
northern Guinea savanna of Nigeria. J. Sci
Agricultural Food Tech and Environ
(1): 24-30.


Ibedu  MA, Unambra RPA and
Udealor A (1988). Soil management strategies in relation to farming system
development in Southwestern Agricultural zone of Nigeria. Paper presented at
the National Farming System Research Workshop, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria.


Jones CA (1997). A survey of the
variability of tissue nitrogen and phosphorus concentration
in maize and grain sorghum.
Field Crops


Kemper WO and
Rosenau RC (1986). Aggregate Stability and Size distribution.
Methods of
Soil Analysis. Part 1. Ichite, A. (ed).
Physical and Minerological method. ASA-SSSA.
WI. 422-425.


Klute A and Dirksen C (1986).
Hydraulic conductivity and diffusivity laboratory method. In:
Klute, A. (ed.).
Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 2nd
red. ASA-SSSA. Madison.


Lado A, Karaye AK, Alhassan, J
and Yakubu, A.I (2010). Influence of Nutrient Sources and Weeding Regimes on
Weed Growth and Bulb Yield of Irrigated Onion. Niger. J.  Weed Sci. 25: 59
– 72.


Lee JJ, Park RD, Kim, TH, Kim YW,
Shim, JH, Chae DH, Rim YS, Sohn, B.K(2004). Effect of food lettuce growth.
Bioresource Technol. 93:21


Maher MJ and Magette WI (1997).
Solving the Spent Mushroom Compost Problem. In:
Staunton, L. and Grant, J. (Eds.)
Adv in
Mushroom prod.
Teagasc, Dublin,
Ireland.  73-82.


Mbagwu J S C.(1992). Improving the productivity of a degraded
ultisol in Nigeria using organic
and inorganic amendment. Part 2,
in physical properties. Bioresource Technol.,


JSC, Agbim  NN, Oti NN and Udom BE  (2004) . Long-term effects of disposal of
sewage wastes on physical properties of an ultisol in Nigeria. Int. J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3: 39-4


McGrath S, Maguire RO, Tacy BF
and Kike JH (2009). Improving soil nutrient with
poultry litter application in low input forage systems.
Agron. J. 102:48-54.


McLean EO (1982). Soil pH and
lime requirement. In: A.L. page (Ed.)
of Soil
Analysis. Part 2, 2ndEd. Agron. Monogr. No 9. ASA and SSSA
Madison. WI. 539-579.


DW and Sommer LE (1982).
Total Carbon, Organic
Carbon and Organic Matter, In:
page, A.L. (ed.). Methods of Soil Analysis Part 2, 2nd ed.
Chemical and Microbiological
properties. Agron. Monogr.
9.ASA-SSSA. Madison, WI. 539-579.


Nottidge DO, Ojeniyi SO, Asawalem
DO (2005). Comparative effect of plant residues and
NPK fertilizers on nutrient status and yield of maize (
Zea mays L.) in humid ultisol. Soil
Sci. Soc


JT, McAndrew DA, Thomas AG (1997). Tillage and nitrogen influence weed
population dynamics in barley (Hordeum
). Weed Technol. 11:


Shih SF and Gastro GJ (1980).
Relationship among stalk length, leaf area and dry biomass of
Agron. J. 72:309-313.


D, Reddy RK, Kakuri VG, Reddy VR and Carter GA (2003). Corn (Zea mays L.). Growth, leaf pigment
concentration, photosynthesis and leaf hyper-spectral reflectance properties as
affected by N supply. Plant and Soil


Cite this Article: Omovbude, S.;
Udom, BE; Udensi, UE (2019). Effects of Poultry Manure and Spent Mushroom
Substrate on Soil, Weed and Maize Performance in an Ultisol. Greener Journal
of Agricultural Sciences 9(2): 146-154,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *