Onyidoh Et Al


Onyidoh et al

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 8 (1), pp. 012-021, January 2018.

ISSN: 2276-7770  

Research Article

Manuscript Number: 110217163

(DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2018.1.110217163)


Assessment of Heavy Metals in Wild and Farmed Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria



Onyidoh Henry Eric, Ismail Falalu Muhammad,

Muhammad Ahmad Muhammad
& Idris Jaafar Abdullahi

Department of Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, A.B.U, Zaria


The likely health risks developed as a result of human
contamination by heavy metal through fish consumption was assessed in this
study. The analysis of wild and farmed fish for heavy metals was determined and
an assessment of the risk limits was evaluated through daily intake of metal
and health risk index. Heavy metals accumulations varied in concentrations in
the various tissues/organs (skin, muscle, gills, liver, intestine, kidneys,
brain, and bones) across the groups of farmed and wild fish species (Clarias gariepinus). A post-hoc
multi-comparison (Duncan Multiple Range Test) showed that there were
significant differences ( < 0.05) across analysed samples. The analysis of
heavy metals concentrations, in the investigated tissues of  Clarias gariepinus, showed levels of heavy
metals accumulations in the order: Fe>Hg>Pb>Cd>Ni and were all
below the recommended safety limits outlined by FAO/WHO. Furthermore, the
consumer’s health risk with the consumption of fish muscles tissues shows that
there are very negligible tendencies for cadmium, lead, and mercury exposure.
Also the ingestion of Clarias gariepinus
with heavy metal concentrations indicated in this study is within the FAO/WHO
safety daily intake limits (also specified in the study) and would not result
in accumulation of heavy metals at intolerable concentrations, thus health
complications arising from accumulation of heavy metals are rare

Keywords: Daily intake of Metals, Health risk index, Heavy metals, Risk assessment

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