Dube and Guveya Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 4 (8), pp. 368-377, September 2014. ISSN: 2276-7770 Research Paper Manuscript Number: 091114354 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2014.8.091114354 Technical Efficiency of Smallholder Out-grower Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Farming in Chipinge District of Zimbabwe Lighton Dube1* and Emmanuel Guveya2 1Faculty of Commerce and Law, Zimbabwe Open University, National Office, P.O Box MP 111, Mt Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe. 2AEMA Development Consultants, 7479 Limpopo Road, Zimre Park, Ruwa, Zimbabwe. *Corresponding Author’s Email: dubelig @gmail .com Abstract: An investigation into the technical efficiency of smallholder out-grower tea farmers of Chipinge district, Zimbabwe was carried out. The method employed was the Data Envelope Analysis (DEA) approach on 50 smallholder out-grower farmers collected in November, 2013. The estimates of technical efficiencies of the farmers range from 0.37 to 1.0 while the mean technical efficiency was found to be 0.79. This suggests that 21 % of smallholder out-grower tea output is lost because of inefficiency. Experience in tea farming, area under tea production, amount of fertiliser used in production, access to extension services, extent of farm commercialization, amount of labour used in production and yield of tea significantly affect technical efficiency among smallholder out-grower tea farms. The study results imply that improvement in technical efficiency should be the first logical step for increasing productivity in smallholder out-grower tea farming in Chipinge district. Keywords: Data Envelope Analysis, technical efficiency, smallholder out-grower tea farmers. Return to Content View [Full Article – PDF] [Full Article – HTML] [Full Article – EPUB] Reference: Agrell PJ, M Farsi, M Filippini, and M Koller, (2013). Unobserved Heterogeneous Effects in the Cost Efficiency Analysis of Electricity Distribution Systems. ECORE Alemdar T and MN Oren, (2006). Determinants of technical efficiency of wheat farming in Southeastern Anatolia, Turkey: A nonparametric technical efficiency analysis. Journal of Applied Science, 6: 827-830. Al-Hassan S, (2008). Technical Efficiency of Rice Farmers in Northern Ghana. AERC Research Paper Tamale, Ghana. Alvarez A, and C Arias, (2004). Technical efficiency and farm size: A conditional analysis. Agricultural Economics,30: 241-250. Angi JMN, (2012). Economic Efficiency of Smallholder Coffee Production in Mathira District, Kenya. MSc Thesis Cheng Y, and D Lo, (2004). Farm Size, Technical Efficiency and Productivity Growth in Chinese Industry. School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Working paper No. 144. Coelli TJ, (1996a).A Guide to DEAP Version 2.1: A Data Envelopment Analysis (Computer) Program. Working Paper 96/8, CEPA, Department of Econometrics, University of New England, Armidale, Australia. Coelli TJ, DS Prasada Rao, CJ O’Donnell and GE Battese, (2005). An Introduction to Efficiency and Productivity Analysis. Springer USA Dube L and E Guveya, (2014). Productivity Analysis of Smallholder Out-Grower Tea (Camellia Sinensis) Farming in Chipinge District of Zimbabwe. Journal for Agriculture Economics and Rural Development 2() Dutta R, EMA Smaling, RM Bhagat, VA Tolpekin and A Stein, (2012): Analysis of Factors that Determine Tea Productivity in Northeastern India: A Combined Statistical and Modelling Approach. Experimental Agriculture, 48(1): 64-84 FAO (2001). Forestry out-grower schemes: A global Overview. Working Paper No. FP/11 Farrell MJ, (1957). The Measurement of Productive Efficiency. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series, 120: 253-290. Ghorbani A, SA Mirmahdavi and E Rahimabadi, (2009). Economic Efficiency of Caspian Cattle Feedlot Farms. Asian Journal of Animal Science, 3: 25-32. Greene WH, (2007). The Econometric Approach to Efficiency Analysis. Oxford University Press, New York. Gul M, B Koc, E Dagistan, MG Akpinar and O uz Parlakay, (2009). Determination of Technical Efficiency in Cotton Growing Farms in Turkey: A Case Study of Cukurova Region. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 4(10): 944-949 Gul M, (2006). Technical Efficiency of Apple Farming in Turkey: A Case Study Covering Isparta, Karaman and Nigbe Provinces. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 9: 601-605 Idris NDM, C Siwar and B Talib, (2013). Determinants of Technical Efficiency on Pineapple Farming. American Journal of Applied Sciences, 10(4): 426-432 Illukpitiya P, (2005). Technical efficiency in agriculture and dependency on forest resources: An economic analysis of rural households and the conservation of natural forests in Sri Lanka. Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia, EEPSEA, Technical Report. Retrieved from: www.idrc.ca/en/ev-99958-201-1-Do-TOPIC/. Jaforullah M and J Whiteman, (1999). Scale efficiency in the New Zealand dairy industry: a non-parametric approach. Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, 43(4): 523-41. Kibaara B, (2005). Technical Efficiency in Kenyans’ Maize Production: An Application of the Stochastic Frontier Approach. Tegemeo Institute of Agriculture Policy and Development, Colorado State University, Retrieved from: http://www.egemeo.org/viewdocument.asp?ID=116. Lipsey RG, (1989). An introduction to Positive Economics. Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London; ISBN-10: 0297795562 Lubis R, A Daryanto, M Tambunan and H Purwati, (2014). Technical, Allocative and Economic Efficiency of Pineapple Production in West Java Province, Indonesia: A DEA Approach, IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veternary Science, 7(6) Mayers J, (2000). Company-Community Forest Partnerships: A Growing Phenomenon. Unasylva. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy. 51: 33-41 Moyo S, P O’keefe and M Sill, (1993). The Southern African Environment. Profiles of the SADC Countries. The ETC Foundation, Earthsan Publication Limited, London Muir K, (1994). ‘Agriculture in Zimbabwe’, in Rukuni and Eicher (eds), Zimbabwe’s Agricultural Revolution,: 195-207, Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications. Murthy DS, M Sudha, MR Hegde, V Dakshinamoorthy, (2009). Technical Efficiency and Its Determinants in Tomato Production in Karnataka, India: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) Approach. Agricultural Economics Research Review, 22: 215 – 224. Sarwar G, S Anwar and MH Sial, (2012). Quality of Inputs and Technical Efficiency Nexus of Citrus Farmers in District Sargodha. International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences, Vol. 2( 1) Sibiko KW, G Owuor, E Birachi, EO Gido, OA Ayuya and JK Mwangi, (2013). Analysis of Determinants of Productivity and Technical Efficiency among Smallholder Bean Farmers in Eastern Uganda. Current Research Journal of Economic Theory Thapa YB, (2003). Competitiveness and Policy Issues in the Tea Sector of Nepal, Background analysis prepared for FAO/MoAC Nepal WTO project, Draft Report, Kathmandu. Tobin J, (1958). Estimation of Relationships for Limited Dependent Variables. Econometrica, 26 (1): 24-36. Todsadee A, H Kameyama, K Ngamsomsuk, and K Yamauchi, (2012). Technical Efficiency of Broiler Farms in Thailand: Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. van der Wal Sanne, (2008). Sustainability Issues in the Tea Sector: A Comparative Analysis of Six Leading Producing Countries. SOMO- Centre for Research on Multinational Corporations, Amsterdam. The Netherlands. Woodend J, (2003). Potential of Contract Farming as a Mechanism for the Commercialisation of Smallholder Agriculture: The Zimbabwe Case Study. Report Prepared for Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), September 2003.