Gadzirayi And Mupangwa

Gadzirayi and Mupangwa



Greener
Journal of  Agricultural Sciences


Vol. 4 (1), pp.
015-021,
January 2014.


 ISSN: 2276-7770 



Research

Paper

Manuscript Number: 012914078

 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2014.1.012914078


The Nutritive Evaluation


and
Utilisation


of
Moringa oleifera Lam in Indigenous

and
Broiler Chicken Production: A Review

 



C. T. Gadzirayi1* and J. F. Mupangwa2

 


1
Bindura
University of Science Education, Faculty of Agriculture
and Environmental Science,


P. Bag 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe.


2
University
of Fort Hare, Department of Livestock & Pasture Science,
P. Bag X 1314 Alice Campus, 

Alice 5700, South Africa.

 

 *Corresponding
Author’s Email:

gadzirayichris @ yahoo. co. uk

Abstract:

There has
been a decline in chicken production in most developing
countries, yet poultry constitute an important pillar in
HIV/AIDS alleviation and act as an income source plus food
security in rural communities. The limited availability and
high cost of stock feeds that have not increased
concomitantly with producer prices are partly responsible
for the decline. These limitations are especially important
in rural communities because they are resource poor. Farmers
therefore enlisted a priority research on alternative feed
sources for poultry production since home-grown feeds
available to the farmer can sometimes be limited. Maize and
sorghum are usually the most abundant sources of grain
available, which can supply adequate carbohydrate but not
protein. Protein sources are expensive and hence
unaffordable to the smallholder farmer. Small holder farmers
have been using leaf meals as protein sources in order to
alleviate feed limitations in poultry production. One such
leaf meal is Moringa oleifera Lam (syns. Moringa
pterygosperm, family Moringaceae). The uses of Moringa
oleifera
have attracted attention of researchers.
Preliminary investigation showed that the plant has high
biomass production. Its leaves are used as vegetables by
humans in central Africa and have a good profile of amino
acids that makes it a valuable source of livestock feed.
 
Keywords: Moringa oleifera, nutritive value,
utilization, indigenous chicks, broilers.

Reference:


Agricultural Research
Council (1999). Five years rolling strategic plan (1999-2004) Agricultural
Research Council, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Akinbamijo Y,
Nouala  S, Saecker J, Adesina MA,
Hoffmann E, Muetzel S, Fuglie L, Becker K (2003). Prospects of Moringa oleifera
as a feed resource in the West African Mixed Farming System. “Technological and
Institutional Innovations for Sustainable Rural Development”, Gambia, Senegal,
West Africa.

Alders R (2005).
L’aviculture: Source de profit et de plaisir. Brochure de la FAO sur la
diversification, Rome: FAO, 3.

Chakoma C, Franzel S,
Hove I, Matimati I and Maarsdorp BV (2004). The adoption of fodder trees in
Zimbabwe: Smallholder farmers Experiences and Innovations. Workshop
proceedings: May 2002. World Agro forestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya.

Daghir NJ (1995).
Feedstuffs used in hot regions. In: Poultry production in hot climates. Daghir
NJ (ed). 1st edition. CAB International Wallingford UK: 125- 154.

D’Mello JPF (1992).
Chemical constraints to the use of tropical legumes in animal nutrition. Anim.
Feed Sci. Technol., 38: 237-261.

D’Mello J P E, T
Acamovic, A G Walker (1987).Evaluation of Leuceana leaf meal for broiler growth
and pigmentation. Trop. Agric. (Trinidad), 64: 33-35

D’Mello J P (1995).
Leguminous leaf meals in non- ruminant nutrition. In: Tropical legumes in
animal nutrition. 1st  edition. A.B
International, Wallingford Oxon UK. p. 247- 280.

Donkoh A, Atuahene CC,
Poku-Prempeh YB, Twnm IG (2002). The nutritive value of chaya (Cnidoscolus
aconitifolius (Mill.) Johnson) leaf meal: Studies with broiler chickens. Anim.
Feed Sci. Tec., (Netherlands) 77: 163-172.

Foidl N, Makkar H P S,
Becker K, (2001). The potential of Moringa oleifera for Agricultural and
industrial uses, pp45-76: The miracle tree: The multi uses of Moringa (Ed)
Lowell J. Fugile, CTA, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Gichohi CM , Maina JG
(1992). Poultry production and marketing, Ministry of Livestock Production.
Paper presented in Nairobi-Kenya, Nov., 23-27.

Gutteridge RC, Shelton
HM (1993). The scope and potential of tree legumes in agroforestry.
Agroforestry Systems, 23: 117 – 194.

Haruna U, Hamidu BM
(2004). Economic Analysis of Turkey production in the western Agricultural zone
of Bauchi State. Proceedings of the 9th Annu. Conf. Anim. Sci. Assoc. Nig.
(ASAN) 3: 299-303.

Hove (2000). Influence
of season/year and species on chemical composition and in vitro digestibility
of five Indigofera accessions. Animal Feed Science and Technology, Volume 136,
Issue 3 – 4: 312 – 322.

Kitalyi AJ, Mayer A
(1998). Village chicken production systems in rural Africa. Household food
security and gender issues. Animal Production and Health Paper 142, FAO : Rome,
Italy, pp: 81.

Makkar HPS, Becker K
(1996). Nutrientional value and anti-nutritional components of whole and
extracted Moringa oleifera leaves. Anim.Feed Sci. Techmol.63: 211-228.

Makkar HPS, Becker K
(1999). Plant toxins and detoxification methods to improve feed quality of
tropical seeds-Review. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12(3), 467-480.

Maroyi A (2006). The
Utilisation of Moringa oleifera in Zimbabwe: A Sustainable Livelihood Approach.
Journal of Sustainable Development in Africa 8: 172 – 85.

Maugham PJ, Maroof
MAS, Buss GR, Huestis GM (1996). Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)
in soy bean. Species diversity, inheritance and near-isogenic line analysis.
Theoretical and applied Genetics, 93: 392-401.

Mbugua PN (1990).
Rural smallholder poultry production in Kenya. Proceedings: Smallholder rural
poultry production—requirements of research and development, 9–13 October
(1990). Thessaloniki, Greece, Volume 2: Country reports, 117–131.

Morton JF (1991). The
Horseradish tree, Moringa pterygosperma (Moringaceae) – A boon to arid lands.
Econ. Bot. 45: 318-333.

Munangi W (2004).
Small holder Dairy Sector in Zimbabwe: Proceedings of one day Policy workshop.
December 2004, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Mupangwa JF, Ngongoni
NT, Topps JH, Hamudikuwanda H (2000). Effects of supplementing a basal diet of
Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia
rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some
nutritional parameters in goats. Tropical Animal Health and Production 32 (4):
245 – 256.

Nworgu FC, Fasogbon FO
(2007). Centrosoma (Centrosoma pubescens) leaf meal as protein supplement for
pullet chicks and growing pullets. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 6: 255-260.

Odunsi AA, Ogunleke
MO, Alagbe OS, Ajani TO (2002). Effect of feeding Gliricidia sepium leaf meal
on the performance and egg quality of layers. Int. J.Poult. Sci., 1: 26-28.

Omeje SI, Odo BI, Egwu
PO (1997). The effects of Centrosema pubescens as leaf meal concentrate for
broiler birds. In Book of Abstract of the 22 Annual Conference of NSAP. Held at
AbubakarTafawa Balewa University, Bauchi-Nigeria, 136-137.

Palada MC (1996).
Moringa (Moringa oleifera Lam.): A versatile tree crop with horticultural
potential in the subtropical United States. Hort. Sci 31: 794–797.

Powel W,
Orozco-Castillo C, Chalmers KJ, Provan J, Waugh R (1995). Polymerase Chain  Reaction 
based  assays  for 
characterisation  of  plant 
genetic  resources. Electrophoresis,
16: 1726-1730 Proceedings  of  the 
XVII  international  grassland congress, New Zeal.

Ramachandran C, Peter
KV, Gopalakrishan PK (1980). Drumsick (M. oleifera): A multipurpose Indian
vegetable. Economic Botany 34 (3): 276-283.

Rukayinga S (2004).
Farmers Experiences – Chikwaka Dairy Farmers. One day policy dialogue workshop,
December 2004, ICRAF, Harare, Zimbabwe. ruminants particularly under tropical
conditions. Nutr. Res. Rev. 44: 277-303.

Sarwatt SV, Kapange SS
and Kakengi AMV (2002). Substituting sunflower seed cake with Moringa oleifera
leaves as supplement goat feed in Tanzania. Agroforetsry Systems 56:241-247.

Scoones I, Melnyk M,
Pretty JN (1992). The Hidden Harvest: Wild Foods and Agricultural Systems:A
Literature Review and Annotated Bibliography. IIED. Swedish International
Development Authority and World Wide Fund for Nature, London and Gland.

Skerman PJ, Cameroon
DG, Riveros F (1988). Centrosema spp. In: Tropical Forage Legumes. 2nd edition.
FOA Plant Production and Protection Series. No. 2. Skerman P.J (ed). Rome
Italy, 237-257.

Sobamiwa O, Akinwale
TO (1999). Replacement value of cocoa husk meal for maize in diets of growing
pullets. Trop. J. Anim. Sci., 1: 111-116.

Sutherland JP,
Folklard GK, Grant WD (1996). Natural coagulation for appropriate water
treatment. A Novel Approach, Waterlines 8(4): 30–32.

Udedibie ABI, Opara CC
(1998). Responses of growing broilers and laying hens to the dietary inclusion
of leaf meal from Alchornia cordifolia. Anim. Feed Sci. Tec., 71: 157-164.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *