Mutsvandiani et al Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5 (2), pp. 062-075, March 2015. ISSN: 2276-7770 Research Paper Manuscript Number: 082914341 DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2015.2.082914341) The effect of Herbicides on Residual Effects of Atrazine under Conservation Agriculture Mutsvandiani Chikutuma1, 2, Tembo Lovejoy1 and Kurangwa Wisdom1* 1Zimbabwe Open University1, Faculty of Agriculture, P. O. Box MP1119, Mount Pleasant Harare Zimbabwe. 2Hatcliffe Institute of Agricultural Engineering2, P. O. Box BW 338 Borrowdale, Hatcliffe, Harare, Zimbabwe. *Corresponding Author Email: wkurangwa @ gmail.com Abstract An experiment was set up to evaluate the residual effect of atrazine in cowpea production under conservation agriculture. The trial was superimposed on a previous herbicide trial of a maize crop in 2012/2013 season. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replicates and four treatments as follows; 1. control (manual weeding), 2. Atrazine (3.6 litres/ha), 3. Atrazine (3.6 litres/ha) + glyphosate (2.5 litres/ha) and 4. Atrazine (3.6 litres/ha) + glyphosate (2.5 litres/ha) + metolachlor (1 litre/ha). Herbicide treatment was carried out at planting time and manual weeding at 10 cm weed height. Data collected include: germination percentage, weed counts and weed biomass, cowpea biomass, pod length and cowpea yield. The herbicidal treatments showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on pod length and cowpea yield. The control plot had the highest pod length of 17.03cm and atrazine alone had the least of 15.77cm. A combination of three herbicides had the highest yield of 1.2t/ha and atrazine alone had the lowest yield of 0.9t/ha. No significant (p>0.05) effects were recorded on percentage germination, weed counts and weed biomass as well as on cowpea biomass. Tank mixing of two or more herbicides is recommended when using atrazine to reduce residual effect and further research is recommended under different soil types with different climatic conditions. Key words: conservation agriculture, atrazine, cowpea, residual effect. Return to Content View [Full Article – PDF] [Full Article – HTML] [Full Article – EPUB] References Baudron, F., Tittonell, P., Corbeels, M., Letourmy, P. and Giller, K. E. (2012). Comparative performance of conservation agriculture and current smallholder farming practices in semi-arid Zimbabwe. Field Crops Research 132: 117-128. Bohlool, B. B., Ladha, J. K., Garrity, D. P. and George, T. (1992). Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture: A perspective Plant and Soil 141: 1-11, 1992. Croplife (2006). Zimbabwe Croplife Chemical Handbook. Volume 2: Herbicides. Harare. Derpsch, R. (2008) No-tillage and conservation agriculture: A progress report. In No-till farming systems, Vol. 3 (Eds T. Goddard, M. Zoebisch, Y. Gan, W. Ellis, A. Watson and S. Sombatpaint). Paraguay: Special Publications. Djumalieva, D. and Vassilev, A. (1993). Cropping Systems in Intensive Agriculture, M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd, ISBN 8185880077, 9788185880075 pp214 Esterhuizen, D. (2014) Grain and feed annual report, USDA Foreign Agricultural Services, Global Agricultural Information Network http://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20/Publications/Grain%20and%20feed%20annual%20report_Pretoria_Zimbabwe_7-17-2014.pdf FAO, (2002). Conservation agriculture: Case studies in Latin America and Africa. In FAO Soils Bulletin, Vol. 78 Rome: FAO. Ghosheh, H. and Al-Hajaj, N. (2005). Weed seedbank response to tillage and crop rotation in a semi-arid environment, Soil and Tillage Research 84 (2): 184-191 Hager, A. G. and Nordy, D. (2007). Herbicide persistence and how to test for residues in soils. Illinois Agricultural Pest Management Handbook 344 pp. 333-350. Johansen, C., Haque, M. E., Bell, R. W., Thierfelder, C. and Esdaile, R. J. (2012). Conservation agriculture for small holder rainfed farming: Opportunities and constraints of new mechanized seeding systems. Field Crops Research 132(0): 18-32. Krutz, J. L., Shaner, D. L., Weaver, M. A., Webb, R. M. T., Zablotowicz, R. M., Reddy, K. N., Huanga, Y. &Thomsona, S. J. (2009). Agronomic and environmental implications of enhanced s-triazine degradation. Wiley Interscience 66: 461–481. Lal. R., Delgado, J. A., Groffman, P. M., Millar, N., Dell, C. and Rotz, A. (211). Management to mitigate and adapt to climate change, Journal of Soil and Water Conservation vol. 66 (4): 276-285. Machekano, H., Mvumi, B. M. and Rwafa, R. (2012). Temporal population dynamics of storage insect pests and their management using safer grain protectants in maize smallholder systems of Zimbabwe. Third RUFORUM Biennial Meeting 24 – 28 September 2012, Entebbe, Uganda. Muchineripi, G. (2010). Evaluation of the efficacy and economics of different weed control strategies. In Crop Science, Vol. Masters of Science: Africa University, Zimbabwe. Munodawafa, A. (2012) “The Effect of Rainfall Characteristics and Tillage on Sheet Erosion and Maize Grain Yield in Semiarid Conditions and Granitic Sandy Soils of Zimbabwe,” Applied and Environmental Soil Science, vol. 2012, Article ID 243815, 8 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/243815 Niggol, S. S., Dinar, A., Hassan, R. and Kurukulasuriya, P. (2009). A ricardian analysis of the distribution of climate change impacts on agriculture across agro-ecological zones in Africa. Springer 43: 313-332. Nyamapfeni, K. (1991). Soils of Zimbabwe Nehanda Publishers Muzemu, S., Mvumi, B.M., Nyirenda, S.P.M., Sileshi, G.W., Sola, P., Kamanula, J.F., Belmain, S.R. & Stevenson, P.C., (2011), Pesticidal effects of indigenous plants extracts against rape aphids and tomato red spider mites. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings, Vol.10. pp. 169 – 171. Peyvastegan, S. and Farahbakhsh, A. (2011). The Residual Effects of Different Doses of Atrazine+Alachlor and Foramsulfuron on the Growth and Physiology of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 50. Reinhardt, C. F. (1995). Residual effect of atrazine on field-grown dry beans and sunflower, South African Journal of Plant and Soil, Volume 12, Issue 2: 82-85. Rugare, J. T. (2009).An evaluation on the efficacy and economic feasibility of manual and chemical weed control strategies under smallholder conservation agriculture in Zimababwe’s Highveld areas. In Crop Science, Vol. Master of Science: University of Zimbabwe Süzer, S. and Büyük, H. (2010). Residual effects of spraying Imidazolinone-family herbicides on Clearfield sunflower production from the point of view of crop rotation, HELIA, 33, Nr. 52, p.p. 25-36. Taber, H. G. (2009). Residual Effects of Callisto, Impact, and Laudis Herbicide on Cucumber, Pepper, Snap Bean, and Tomato Department of Horticulture Iowa State University. Thierfelder, C. and Wall, P. C. (2009). Effects of conservation agriculture techniques on infiltration and soil water content in Zambia and Zimbabwe. Soil and Tillage Research 105(2): 217-227. Verma, V. K.; Tewari, A. N.; Dhemri, S. (2009). Effect of atrazine on weed management in winter maize-greengram cropping system in central plain zone of Uttar Pradesh, Indian Journal of Weed Science 2009 Vol. 41 No. 1/2 pp. 41-45 Vogel, H. (1994). The need for integrated weed management systems in smallholder conservation farming in Zimbabwe. 96: 35-36. Wall, P. C. (2007). Tailoring conservation agriculture to the needs of small farmers in developing countries: An analysis of issues. Journal of Crop Improvement 19(1/2).