Journal of  Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 4 (2), pp.
March 2014.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 



Manuscript Number: 072213741

 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2014.2.072213741

Effect of Seed and Vegetative Forage Propagules on
Pasture Establishment


Nweze Basil Obasi


Department of Animal Science, Ebonyi
State University, Abakaliki – Nigeria.



obasinweze @ gmail.com


forage propagules consisting of two grass species namely
Andropogon gayamus and Panicum maximum and two legumes
species, Centrosema pubescen and Calopogonum mucunoides were
investigated to determine the effect of their propagules on
pasture establishment. The propagules were cultivated by
seed and vegetative methods twice yearly for periods of four
years. The forages were harvested from each plot and the
carrying capacities on each plot determined. The Tropical
Livestock Unit (TLU) of the propagules was also calculated
using the forage yield in each plot. The results indicated
significant differences (p <0.05) among the carrying
capacities from the propagules. The legumes seed propagules
were superior to their vegetative counterparts. However, the
grass vegetative propagules had a better carrying capacity
than grass seed propagules. Both seed and vegetative
propagules cultivated during the rainy season were better
than those cultivated during dry season. The TLU of seed
propagules were superior to vegetative propagules with
legumes seed sole cropping propagules having the highest
carrying capacity. The grass/grass mix cropping had the
least value among other propagules because of intra species
Keywords: Forage seedlings, cultivation method,


Ademosun, AA, (1988). The Management of
natural improvement Natural Grassland in Nigeria. Nigerian Agric Journal 5(1) 4-5

Ademosun, AA, (1973a) Nutritive evaluation of
Nigerian forages in the effect of stage of maturity on the nutritional value of
Panicum maximum Nig. Agric. J. 10: 8-12

Ademosun AA, (1973) Review of Research on the
evaluation of herbage crops and natural grassland in Nigeria. Trop. Grassland 7:285-296

Bate, RG, (1954) Electrometric pH determination. John Willy and Sun Inc. Pub. New

Bray R. H and Kurtz L.T. (1945) Determination
of organic and available phosphorous in soil.
J. Soil Sci
. 59: 33-445.

Bremma J, (1965). Total Nitrogen determination method of soil analysis: Agronomy No.
9. American Society of Agronomy Machsum and Wise Pub. Pp 1141-1171

Deleeuw, PN, (1985). The prospect of
Livestock production in Northern Guinea Savannazone. Samaru Agui Newsletter 13:

Edya LA, Humphrey, LR and Benzelle F, (1964).
Pasture Investigation  in various
district. Queensland. Univ. Dept of Agric

Donald DCM, (1963). Competition among crops
and pasture. Advance Agron. 15:1-118

Ezedinma, A, Youndent P and Ochepa CO, (1986)
In Introduction to Tropical Agriculture.
1st Ed. Pub. Longman London 8 New York pp 102-115

FAO (1974) Legend to soil unit FAO/UNESCO Map of World Soil.

Hagger, RJ, (1984). The growth and production
of grass from sown pasture in Northern Nigeria with special reference to Andropogan gayanus.  A paper presented at the Conf. on Livestock
prod. Shika Abu Zaria Nigeria

Humphrey LR, (1987). The climate factors in Austeria Grassland. Austeria Nat. University
Press p. 5

Humphrey (1985). Environmental adaptation of
tropical plant Macmillan Pub. London pp 20-25

Humphrey (1978). In Tropical pasture and
fodder crop. W.J. ed. Longman England

Harrey, WR, (1977). User’s guide for least square and maximum likelihood of comper program.

Mosi AK, Carew BA, Mba AU and Egbunike GN,
(1980). The potential of browse plant in nutrition of small ruminant in humid
forest and derived savanna zone of Nigeria. In
browse in Africa
. ILCA Ethiopia pp. 307-311.

Nweze, BO and Omeje SI, (2001). The effect of
drought on pasture establishment. A case of Andropogu
and Panicum maximum. Journal
of the Science of Agric, Food Tech and Environment
Vol. 3:1-30

Nweze BV, Ekwe OO, (2001). Effect grazing and
bush burning on the establishment of five species in humid tropics environment.
Trop. T. Anim. Sci (492): 39-45

Nweze, BO, Ekwe OO, Agbaku AM and Omeje
(2001). Effect of grazing and bush burning of pasture on pasture establishment.
Proceedings 26th Ann. Conf. Ariwa House. Kaduna pp. 305-306.

Nweze BO, Nwangurapu G, Okpanielechi P, Ekwe
LG and Omeje S, (2000). The effect of propagation method on forage yield of
pasture species in Humid tropic environment proc. 25th Ann. Conf.
Nig. Soc. Anim. Prod. Umudike Nigeria pp. 21-22.

Nweze BO and Omeje SI, (1998). The effect of
drought on pasture establishment of two pasture species Andropogan gayanus and Panicum
under two modes of propagation. Proc. Solver Jubilee Court. West
Africa Society of Anim. Prod. Abeokuta No.5

Nweze BO, Omeje SI and Otuma MO, (1998). The
effect of Nitrogen fertilizer application on pasture establishment silver
jubilee conf. West African Society of Anim. Prod. Abeokuta No. 187

Nweze Omeje SI, Nweze BO, and SO, (1997).
Establishment of grazing paddock for cattle and small ruminant. The performance
of two grass species, Andropogan gayamus,
Panicum maximum germinated by seed
and by transplant. 22nd Ann. Cont. Nig. Soc. Anim. Prod. Bauchi
Nigeria No. 172

Omalikwe CUE, (1980). Influence of initial
cutting date and cutting frequency on yield and quantity of star, elephant and
guinea grasses. Grass and forage Sci.
Vol 23(2) 135-145.

Oyenuga (1966). Productivity and Nutritive
value of tropical pasture at Ijech Proc. 10th International Glass
Congress p. 962.

Rani AB, (1985). Grassland Improvement and
Utilization in Nigeria .Outlook on Agric
3: 174-195.

Rain AB, (1963). Grassland research in
Northern Nigeria 1951-1962. Samaru Misc Paper No. 1 pp96.

Skerman PJ, Ammeron, DC and Rivirsos, F,
(1988). In Tropical forage species USA
plant production series
. No. 2 2nd Ed. Rome pp 142-144.

Yayock JV, Lombin GL and Owonubi JJ, (1987). In crop sci. in warm climate. 3rd
Ed. McMillan Intermediate Agric Series London pp. 284-285

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.