Okweche Et Al


Okweche et al

Journal of  Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 3 (10), pp.
October 2013.

 ISSN: 2276-7770 



Manuscript Number: 170913845


Interrelationships with Yield and use of Carbofuran to
Control Stem Borers in Maize

(Zea mays l.) at
Makurdi in the Nigerian Southern Guinea Savanna


Okweche S. I.*1, Ogunwolu E. O.2,
Adeyemo M. O.3,


of Crop Science, University of Calabar, P. M. B. 1115,
Calabar, Nigeria.

of Crop & Environmental Protection, University of
Agriculture, P. M. B. 2373, Makurdi, 

Benue State,

of Crop Production, University of Agriculture, P. M. B.
2373, Makurdi,

Benue State, Nigeria.


*Corresponding Author’s Email: idokosi@yahoo.com, Tel:


Early and late crops of flint, pop and sweet maize (Zea
mays L.
) were sown in field plots laid in randomized
complete block design at the Teaching and Research Farm in
2004. Stem borer infestation and damage were assessed both
in the plots treated with 1.5 kg carbofuran/ha and in those
not treated for stem borer control. The maize types, as
subplot treatments, and carbofuran application vs no
application, as main plot treatments, were replicated four
times. Borer damage was quantified as percentage dead-heart,
bored stems, lodged stems, bored internodes, and as numbers
of borer larvae/stem and borer cavities. The damage
parameters were correlated with each other and with yield.
Busseola fusca Fuller was the most abundant species;
borer infestation was 5 times higher in the late than in the
early crop and application of carbofuran resulted in 86.8
and 63.5 % control, respectively. Yield loss due to borer
damage to the early crop was 14.0%; that for the late crop
was 1.5-fold higher. In both crops, maize type exerted no
significant effect (P>0.05) on borer damage. Percentage
bored internodes was positively and significantly (P < 0.01)
correlated with number of bored stems (r = 0.95, early crop;
0.88, late crop), and lodged stems (r = 0.82, early crop;
0.83, late crop). Similarly, bored and lodged stems were
positively correlated (r =0.75 and 0.74, respectively in the
early and late crop; P < 0.01). Dead-heart was positively
correlated with each stem damage parameter; coefficients of
correlation were higher for the early than the late crop.
All damage parameters were negatively correlated with yield
but a robust yield loss predictive model was not found. As
such, use of carbofuran against maize stem borers would
continue to be prophylactic at Makurdi.
Keywords: Maize, stem borer, damage, control,

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