Zewdie And Welday


Zewdie and Welday

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences Vol. 5 (1), pp. 023-033, February 2015.

 ISSN: 2276-7770  

Review Paper

Manuscript Number: 080614317

DOI: http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2015.1.080614317

Performance and Breeding Strategies for Genetic Improvement of Goat in
Ethiopia: A Review


B. and 2Welday K.


1Department of
Animal Sciences, Assosa University, Ethiopia,

Email: zewdiebefikadu@yahoo.com   Mob. No. +251-121-127-099

2Department of
Animal and Range Sciences, Jijiga University, Ethiopia

Email: kflom807@gmail.com 
Mob. No. +251-913-502-839


*Corresponding Author: Email: zewdiebefikadu@yahoo.com

Mobile. No.: +251938647534/912127099



opportunities exist for small ruminant producers to supply animals to both the
export and domestic markets. The growing demands of meat products at the
domestic as well as international markets also increase the importance of goat
in the national economy of the country. Despite the large size of the country’s
goat population, the productivity per unit of animal and the contribution of
this sector to the national economy is relatively low. The phenotypes of the
goats have important influence socio-cultural and economic values to the
Ethiopian communities; as a result, most farmers have specific consideration
and choices for goat coat colors followed by body sizes. Nowadays, there is a
great interest worldwide in conservation and utilization of genetic resources
aiming for a more efficient use of present genetic resources of the goat
species. In Ethiopia, a number of organizations attempted to evaluate
performances of farm animal genetic resources at different times predominantly
under on-station management in ranches and research farms. Although,
performance levels, genetic parameter estimates and breeding program practices
are available for limited number of breeds, indigenous goat populations have developed
certain valuable genetic traits such as ability to improve the performance
under low input condition and climatic stress, tolerance to infectious diseases
and parasites. These genotypes can help in meeting future challenges resulting
from possible changes in production systems and consumer requirements. Hence,
to efficiently utilize these special features of indigenous breeds, there is a
need of planning and implementing viable breeding programs that fit to the
existing low input production systems.


Keywords: Breeding, Conservation, Ethiopia, Goat.



Abegaz, S., Abebe, G. and
Awgichew, K., 2008. Sheep and Goat Production Systems in Ethiopia. In: Yami,
A., Merkel, R.C. (eds), Sheep and goat production handbook for Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Sheep and Goat Productivity Improvement Program (ESGPIP). 27–38 pp.


Adane Hirpa and Girma Abebe,
2008. Economic Significance of Sheep and Goats. Funded by United States.


Aitken D.I (2007). Diseases of
sheep. Blackwell Publishing. United Kingdom. 610 pp.


Alexandre G. and Mandonnet N (2005). Goat
meat production in harsh environments. Small Ruminant Research 60: 53-66.


Amer P. R (2005). Report Meat and
Wool New Zealand.


Ayalew W., Rischkowsky B., King
J.M. and Bruns E (2003). Crossbreds did not create more net benefits than
indigenous goats in Ethiopian smallholdings. Agric. Sys 76:1137- 1156.


Baker, R.L. and Gray, G.D (2004).
Appropriate breeds and breeding schemes for sheep and goats in the tropics. In:
Sani, R.A., Gray, G.D., Baker, R.L. (eds.), Worm Control for Small Ruminants in
Tropical Asia, Canberra. ACIAR Monograph 113: 63–96.


Bakshi M.P.S. and Wadhwa M
(2007). Tree leaves as complete feed for goat bucks. Research 69: 1-3.


Bayer W., von Lossau A. and
Feldmann A (2001). Smallholders and community-based management of farm animal
genetic resources. Proceedings of the workshop held in Mbabane, Swaziland, 7-11
May 2001. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations Rome, 2003.


Ben Salem H., and Smith T (2008).
Feeding strategies to increase small ruminant production in dry environments.
Small Ruminant Research 77: 174-194.


Botsime B.D (2006). Influence of
agro-ecological region on selected anthropometrical measurements of Nguni
cattle in South Africa, MSc Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South


Browning, Jr. R., Payton, T.,
Donnelly, B., Leite-Browning, M.L., Pandya, P., Hendrixson, W. and Byars, M.,
2006. Evaluation of three meat goat breeds for doe fitness and reproductive
performance in the southeastern United States. 8th World Congress on Genetics
Applied to Livestock Production. Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil.


CSA. 2010a. Summary and
Statistical Report of the 2007 Population and Housing Census Result, Addis
Ababa Ethiopia.


Devendra, C., 1978. In: An
introduction to animal husbandry in the tropics.3rd edition. Tropical
Agriculture series. Longman Publishers. London and New York. 473pp.


Delgado JV, Barba C, Camacho ME,
Sereno FTPS, Martinez A, Vega-Pla JL (2001). Livestock characterization in
Spain. AGRI 29:7–18.


Deribe B (2008). Growth,
Reproductive Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Abergelle and Central
Highland Goat types under Traditional and Slightly Improved Management in
Sekota Woreda. MSc, School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University. 89pp.


Donkin E.F (2005). Sustainable
livestock development in Africa: How do we help Africa to feed itself? In: E.F.
Donkin (Ed). Proceedings of the Annual Symposium, Developing Animal Agriculture
Interest Group, South African Society for Animal Science. South Africa. 27-38


Duguma G., Mirkena, T., Haile A.,
Iñiguez L., Okeyo A.M., Tibbo M., Rischkowsky B., Sölkner J. and Wurzinger M
(2010). Participatory approaches to investigate breeding objectives of
livestock keepers. Livestock Research for Rural Development Volume 22: Article
#64. Available at: http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd22/4/dugu22064.htm.


Edea Z., Dadi H, Kim S-W., Dessie
T., Lee T., Kim, H., Kim J.J. and Kim K-S (2013). Genetic diversity, population
structure and relationships in indigenous cattle populations of Ethiopia and
Korean Hanwoo breeds using SNP markers. Front.Genet. 4:35.


ESGPIP (Ethiopia Sheep and Goat
Productivity Improvement Program). 2008. Sheep and goat hand book. Ethiopia.


FARM-Africa. 1996.  Goat types of Ethiopia and Eritrea. Physical
description and management systems. FARM-Africa, London, UK, and ILRI
(International Livestock


FAO. 1997. Production Yearbook.
Food and Agriculture Organization. Rome, Italy.


FAO. 2010. Breeding strategies
for sustainable management of animal genetic resources. Animal Production and
Health Guidelines. Rome, Italy.




Gebremeskel T (2000). The
experience of Farm-Africa in Goat Development Project in Ethiopia. In: Merkel,
R .C., Abebe, G. & Goetsch, A. L. (eds) The Opportunities and Challenges of
Enhancing Goat Production in East Africa. Proceedings of a conference held at
Debub University, Awassa, Ethiopia, November 10 – 12, 2000. E (Kika) de la
Garza Institute for Goat Research, Langston University, Langston..


Gizaw S., Getachew, T., Edea, Z.,
Mirkena, T., Duguma, G., Tibbo, M., Rischkowsky, B., Mwai, O., Dessie, T.,
Wurzinger, M., Solkner, J. and Haile, A., 2013. Characterization of indigenous
breeding strategies of the sheep farming communities of Ethiopia: A basis for
designing community-based breeding programs. ICARDA working paper, Aleppo,
Syria. 47pp.


Githiori J.B.; Athanasiadou S.,
Thamsborg S.M (2006). Use of plants in novel approaches for control of gastrointestinal
helminths in livestock with emphasis on small ruminants Veterinary Parasitology
139: 308-320.


Haile A., Tibbo M., Duguma G.,
Mirkena T. Okeyo M., Iniguez L., Wurzinger M. and Sölkner J (2009).
Commercialization of Livestock Agriculture in Ethiopia. In:Tamrat Degefa and
Fekede Feyissa (Eds). Proceedings of the 16th Annual conference of the Ethiopian
Society of Animal Production (ESAP). Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 329 pp.


Ibrahim H (1998). Small Ruminant
Productions Techniques. ILRI training manual. ILRI (International Livestock
Research Institute), Nairobi, Kenya. 192p.


Iñiguez L (1998). Community breeding
programmes for small ruminants in the Andean region. In: Proceedings of sixth
world congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Vol. 25 Armidale,
NSW. 249-256 PP.


Kahi A.K., Rewe T.O. and Kosgey
I.S (2005). Sustainable community based organizations for the genetic
improvement of livestock in developing countries. Outlook on AGRICULTURE 34
(4): 261–270.


Kebede T., Haile A., Dadi H. and
Alemu, T (2012a). Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for reproduction
traits in indigenous Arsi-Bale goats. Trop Anim Health Prod .,44:1007–1015.


Kosgey I.S., Baker R.L., Udo
H.M.J., and van Arendok, J.A.M (2006). Successes and failure of small ruminant
breeding programmes in the tropics. A review. Small Ruminant Research 61:


Kosgey I.S and Okeyo AM (2007).
Genetic improvement of small ruminants in low-input smallholder production
systems: Technical and infrastructural issues. Small Rumin. Res 70(1):76-88.


Kahi A. K., Rewe T. O., Kosgey I.
S (2005). Outlook on Agric 34:261-270.


Kusina N.T. and Kusina, J (1999).
Goat productivity in Zimbabwe: opportunities and constraints – A review.
Proceedings of the Association of Institutions of Tropical Veterinary Medicine
(AITVM) in association with Zimbabwe Veterinary Association (ZVA. Harare,


Lanari MR, Taddeo H, Domingo E,
Centeno MP, Gallo L (2003). Phenotypic differentiation of exterior traits in
local Criollo goat population in Patagonia (Argentina). Archiv Tierzucht
Dummerstorf. 46:347–356.


Mahusoon M.M., Perera A.N.F.,
Perera E.R.K. and Perera K.A (2004). Effect of molybdenum supplementation on
circulating mineral levels, nematode infection and body weight in goats as
related to season. Tropical Agricultural Research 16: 128-136.


Masika P.J.and Mafu, J.V (2004).
Aspects of goat farming in the communal farming systems of the central Eastern
Cape, South Africa. Small Ruminant Research 52: 161-164.


Martins CEN, Quadros SAF,
Trindade JPP, Quadros FLF, Costa JHC, Raduenz G (2009). Shape and function in
Braford cows: The body shape as an indicative of performance and temperament.
Archivos de Zootecnia 58:425–433.


Mbuku S.M., Kosgey I.S. Kahi A.K
(2006). Indigenous breeding practices of pastoralist goat keepers in northern
Kenya. 8th World Congress on Genetics Applied to Livestock Production. Belo
Horizonte, MG, Brazil.


Mekasha Y (2007). Reproductive
traits in Ethiopian male goats, with special reference to breed and nutrition.
PhD dissertation. Department of Clinical Sciences, Swedish University of
Agricultural Science (SLU). Uppsala, Sweden. 56p.


Mirkena T., Duguma G., Willam A.,
Wurzinger M., Haile A., Rischkowsky B., Okeyo, A.m., Tobbo M. and Sölkner J
(2012). Community-based alternative breeding plans for indigenous sheep breeds
in four agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. J. Anim.Breed.Genet.129:244-253.


Mpofu N (2002). Choice of genetic
types for specific production environments and production systems. ZaBelo
Livestock Consultancy, Zimbabwe.


Mukasa-Mugerwa E., Anindo D.,
Sovani S., Lahlou-Kassi A., Tebely S., Rege J.E.O. and Baker, R.L
  (2002). Reproductive performance and
productivity of Menz and Horro sheep lambing in the wet and dry seasons in the
highlands of Ethiopia. Small Ruminant Research 45: 261-271.


Mwacharo JM, Okeyo AM, Kamande
GK, Rege JEO (2006). The small east African shorthorn zebu cows in Kenya:I-
Linear body measurements. Trop. Anim. Health Prod. J. 38:65–76.


Moll H.A.J., Staal S.J. and
Ibrahim, M.N.M (2007). Smallholder dairy production and markets: a comparison of
production systems in Zambia, Kenya and Sri Lanka. Agricultural Systems 94: 593
– 603.


National Agricultural Marketing
Council (NAMC). (2005). Investigation by the Goat Working Group (a Committee of
the NAMC) into the marketing potential for the South African goat industry.
Report on the Investigation into the potential for the South African Goat
Industry. www.nda.agric.za/docs/AAPS/NAMC1.pdf.


Nesamvuni AE, Mulaudzi J,
Ramanyimi ND, Taylor GJ (2000). Estimation of body weight in Nguni-type cattle
under communal management conditions. South Afr. Anim. Sci. J. 30(Supplement
1):97–98. Papachristou, T.G., Luthando, E.D., Frederick, D.P. 2005. Review
article: Foraging ecology of goats and sheep on wooded rangelands. Small
Ruminant Research 59: 141–156.


Philipsson J, Rege JEO and Okeyo
A.M (2006). Sustainable breeding programmes for tropical farming systems. In:
J. M. Ojango, B. Malmfors and A.M. Okeyo (eds.). AGTR – version 2,
International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi and Swedish University of
Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.


Peacock, C., 1996. Improving goat
production in the tropics. A Manual for Development workers. Published jointly
by FARM-Africa and Oxfam (UK and Ireland), Oxfam, UK. 87pp.


Peacock C (2005). Goats-A pathway
out of poverty. Small Ruminant Research 60: 179-186.


Quinn C.H., Huby M., Kiwasila H,
Lovett J.C (2007). Design principles and common pool resource management: An
institutional approach to evaluating community management in semi-arid
Tanzania. Journal of Environmental Management 84: 100– 113.


Raghuvansi S.K.S., Tripathi M.K.,
Mishra A.S., Chaturvedi O.H., Prasad R., Saraswat B.L., Jakhmola R.C (2007).
Feed digestion, rumen fermentation and blood biochemical constituents in
Malpura rams fed a complete feed-block diet with the inclusion of tree leaves.
Small Ruminant Research 71: 21-30.


Roessler R. Drucker A.G., Scarpa
R., Markemann A., Lemke U., Thuy L.T. and Valle Zárate A (2007). Using choice
experiments to assess smallholder farmers’ preferences for pig breeding traits
in different production systems in North–West Vietnam. Ecological economics,


Saico S. and Abul S (2007).
Socio-economic constraints on goat farming in the lowveld of Swaziland. Journal
of Sustainable Development in Africa 9: 37-49.


Sebei P.J., McCrindle C.M.E. and
Webb E.C (2004). Factors influencing weaning percentages of indigenous goats on
communal grazing. South African Journal of Animal Science 34: 130-133.


Simela L. and Merkel R (2008).
The contribution of chevon from Africa to global meat production. Meat Science
80: 101-109.


Sissay M.M., Asefa A., Uggla A.
and Waller P.J (2006). Anthelmintic resistance of nematode parasites of small
ruminants in eastern Ethiopia: exploitation of refugia to restore anthelmintic
efficacy. Veterinary Parasitology 135: 337–346.


Sölkner J., Nakimbugwe H. and
Valle-Zárate A (1998). Analyses of determinants for success and failure of
village breeding programmes. In: Proceedings of sixth world congress on
Genetics Applied to Livestock Production, Vol. 25 Armidale, NSW. Australia


Sölkner J., Wurzinger M (2010).
Implementation of community-based sheep breeding programs in different
production systems in Ethiopia.


Tefera A.N., Mekala D.G., Mnisi
P.E., Mukisira M., Clerkson M., Murungweni C. and Sebitloane O (2004). Goat
production and livelihood systems in Sekhukhune district of the Limpopo
Province, South Africa: Opportunities for commercializing goats and their
by-products. Working Document Series 118, South Africa.


Tesfaye Alemu T. (2004). Genetic
characterization of indigenous goat populationsof Ethiopia using microsatellite
DNA markers. PhD thesis, National Dairy University, India. Research 70: 76-88.


Tesfaye K., Aynalem H., and Hailu
D (2012).Smallholder goat breeding and flock management practices in the
central rift valley of Ethiopia. Trop Anim Health Prod 44:999–1006.


Van Niekerk W.A. and Pimentel P.L
(2004). Goat production in the smallholder section in the Boane district in
Southern Mozambique. South African Journal of Animal Science 34: 123-125.


van Wyk A., Hoste H., Kaplan R.M.
and Besier R.B (2006). Targeted selective treatment for worm management—how do
we sell rational programs to farmers? Veterinary Parasitology 139: 336–346.


Webb E.C. and Mamabolo M.J
(2004). Production and reproduction characteristics of South African indigenous
goats in communal farming systems. South African Journal of Animal Science 34:


Wollny C.B.A (2003). The need to
conserve farm animal genetic resources in Africa: should policy makers be
concerned? Ecol. Econ 45: 341–351.


Wurzinger M., Sölkner J. and
Iniguez L (2011). Important aspects and limitations in considering
community-based breeding programs for low-input smallholder livestock systems.
Small Ruminant Research 98:170–175.


Yakubu A (2010a). Path
coefficient and path analysis of body weight and biometric traits in Yankasa
lambs. Slovak J. Anim. Sci. 43:17–25.


Zewdu W., Workneh A., Sölkner J
(2006). Breeding scheme based on analysis of community breeding objectives for
cattle in north-western Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Animal Production 6(2):



Cite this Article: Zewdie B,
Welday K, 2015. Reproductive Performance and Breeding Strategies for Genetic
Improvement of Goat in Ethiopia: A Review. Greener Journal of Agricultural
Sciences, 5(1):023-033, http://doi.org/10.15580/GJAS.2015.1.080614317.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *