Effect of Ration Type and Addition of Helba (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Powder on Feed intake, dry matter digestibility, Blood Components and weight gain of Rabbits

Description: Description: Description: Description: C:\Users\user\Pictures\Journal Logos\GJAS Logo.jpg

Article – 082821082

 304 total views,  3 views today

Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences

Vol. 11(3), pp. 151156, 2021

ISSN: 2276-7770

Copyright ©2021, the copyright of this article is retained by the author(s)

https://gjournals.org/GJAS

.

Description: Description: Description: Description: C:\Users\user\Pictures\Journal Logos\GJAS Logo.jpg

.

.

.

Effect of Ration Type and Addition of Helba (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Powder on Feed intake, dry matter digestibility, Blood Components and weight gain of Rabbits

.

Jumaa Barram Jadalla1, Mawahib Mohammad Mudawwi Imam2, Saliha Hammad Kafey3, Nursa Eldukier Koojor Hussein4 and Musa Ahmed Musa Tibin5

.

1Department of Animal Production , Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Sudan corresponding author

2Ministry of Animal Resources, South Kordofan State, Sudan

3Department of Food Science and technology , Faculty of natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Kordofan, Sudan

4 Department of Animal Production Faculty of Agricultural Sciences , University of Dallanj, Sudan

5Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Natural Resources and Environmental Studies, University of Al Sallam Elfula, Sudan

.

.

ARTICLE INFO

ABSTRACT

.

Article No.: 082821082

Type: Research

Full Text: HTML, EPUB

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed type and addition of the helba (Trigonella foenum-graecum) on feed intake, dry matter digestibility, blood components and weight gain of rabbits. Twenty male rabbits at 4-5 weeks of age and an average weight of 325-335g were used. They were divided into four equal groups each with 5 rabbits. The first and second groups were fed a ration with 18% protein formulated using 52% sorghum grains , 26% wheat bran, 21% groundnut seed cake, 0.50% salt and 0.50% multivitamins.  10g / kg / feed Trigonella foenum-graecum seed powder was added to the first group while the second was left without powder. The third group was fed on a diet containing 18% crude protein and was formulated with 31.76% sorghum, 16.81% groundnut seed cake, 47.43% barseem hay, 3% molasses 0.50% multivitamin and 0.50% salt, with 10 g / kg food from the helba and the same diet was provided for the forth group without adding the helba feeding lasted eight weeks and weekly weighed. The data were analyzed via analysis of variance. Feed intake was 308.57, 367.14, 438.57, 457.14g for group I, II, III and IV respectively. Final body weight was 1.438, 1.320, 1.198, 1.072.kg.for group I, II, III and IV respectively .Dry matter digestibility was 53, 52, 55, 49 % for group I, II, III and IV, respectively. Samples blood (5ml) of all rabbits was taken for determination of total protein albumin, globulin, cholesterol, glucose and total fat. The results indicated significant differences (p<0.05) in final weight that could be attributed to addition of Trigonella foenum-graecum powder on general performance and significant increase ( p<0.05) in total protein and significant decrease in cholesterol in the first and third group. The study concluded that the type of ration and the addition of helba powder (Trigonella foenum-graecum) led to increase in total protein and deceased cholesterol and improved quality of meat. The study recommended further research into the effects of adding higher levels of helba powder and the effect of other additives that can improve the rate of gain in body weight, improve meat quality and reduce the cost of production.

.

Accepted: 01/09/2021

Published: 03/10/2021

.

*Corresponding Author

Dr. Jumaa B Jadalla

E-mail: Jumaaaringola2000 @gmail.com

.

Keywords: rabbits; rations additive; Trigonella foenum-graecum.

.

.

.

INTRODUCTION

.

In populous city centers of Sudan like Elobeid, North Kordofan, Sudan, the price of animal protein is driven by very high demand with little supply putting animal protein out of reach of the average citizen. Similar situation prevails in many developing countries (Oyenuga, 1982). In view of the ever-increasing human population, production of animal protein must step up to meet with increasing demand (Delgado et al., 1999). The authors also added that production of fast growing and early maturing animals such as the rabbit would go a long way in meeting the demand for animal protein.

The rabbits breeding project is considered a successful project especially in recent years due to the sharp increase in the prices of red meat and chicken. The advantage of rabbit meat production is also attributed to the species prolificacy and its distinction of rapid growth and abundant quantity and good quality of the produce. Therefore, it is an investment field for all and as an important and cheap protein food source for consumers (Oyenuga, 1982).

Rabbits are characterized by high fertility, increased litter size short pregnancy, short birth interval together with very short fattening period. The animal has relative advantage over chicken and other bird poultry species in that it is a herbivore. Rabbits have additional advantage with the benefit of byproducts such as fur and organic fertilizer (Afifi and Khalil,1992).

Rabbits are in a permanent state of reproduction where females can be mated within one day of birth, where the rabbit’s uterus returns to normal after 6-10 hours of delivery, which has the ability to conceive and breastfeed at the same time. The female gives 35-40 births a year. It can produce 20 – 25 times as much as its meat weight per year. Rabbits can be acquired and cared for at any level according to the potential of the breeder. For housing rabbits do not need large areas to raise them (Adegbola et al., 1985).

Rabbits can be fed on the green fodder available around the house, cheap agricultural waste, home table remains such as bread, vegetable peel and home fruits and vegetables, thus reducing the cost of nutrition, which constitutes 70% of the cost of production. The rabbit meat is of good quality where it contains 20-21% protein content a low percentage of fat and cholesterol hence being a good meat for the elderly and the sick (Lebas, 1980( .

.

Objective of the study

.

 To provide high animal protein at the lowest cost
 To encourage citizens to accept the consumption of rabbit meat and encourage families and investors and draw their attention to the importance of rear rabbits.
 To expand the research to take a commercial approach by providing a market for the sale and marketing of rabbits and slaughterhouses.
 Specifically it is aimed at studying the effects of feeding two types of rations on: Feed intake, Live body weight change, Blood parameters.

.

The study area

.

Khartoum State, where this experiment was conducted, is one of the eighteen states of Sudan. Although it is the smallest State by area (22,142 km), it is the most populous (5,274,321 in 2008 census (Geohive, 2008 and population census 2008). It contains the country’s second largest city by population, Omdurman, and the city of Khartoum, which is the capital of the State as well as the national capital of Sudan. The State lies between longitudes 31.5o to 34o E and latitudes 15o to 16o N. It is surrounded by River Nile State in the north-east, in the north-west by the Northern State, in the east and southeast by the states of Kassala, Qadarif, Gezira and White Nile State, and in the west by North Kordofan.

Such populous areas are in need for food at low cost. This necessitates looking for investments in poultry and fish farming using locally resources.

 

The experimental animals and treatments

.

Local breed of rabbits were purchased from markets in Khartoum North with ages ranging from 4 to 5 weeks and with average initial weight of 325 to 335g. The rabbits were randomly grouped into four similar groups each with five animals and they were assigned to four treatments (rations). The animals were housed in a 2X3 square meter barn. The floor was made of concrete and had an alleviation of half cm for drainage during washing. The rations were provided manually and on a daily basis at 7:00 am and water was provided throughout the experimental period. The amount of feed consumed was estimated by subtracting the amount left from that was offered the previous day. Feces were collected for seven days for digestibility test. The animals were weighed at the beginning of the trial and once weekly thereafter for eight weeks. Blood samples were taken at the last week. The rabbits were fasted overnight and three from each group were slaughtered for carcass evaluation.

.

The experimental Feed

.

Two rations were formulated using the ingredients shown in Table (1).

.

.

.

Table (1).ingredients used in formulation of rations used in feeding the Experimental rabbits

.

Rations/rabbit groups

Ingredients %

I

II

III

IV

Sorghum grains

52

52

31.76

31.76

Wheat bran

26

26

0

0

Groundnut cake

21

21

16.81

16.81

Barseem hay

0

0

47.43

47.43

Molasses

0

0

3

3

Multi-vitamin

.50

.50

.50

.50

Salt  

.50

.50

.50

.50

Helba

1

0

1

0

1: ration high in sorghum and helba, II= I without helba III= Barseem + sorghum with helba IV=Barseem + sorghum without helba

.

.

Two rations were formulated without Helba addition. Percents of ingredients are indicated in table 1 and rations for group I and III were supplemented with Trigonella foenum-graecum (Helba) powder. Molasses was added to rations II and IV and free of helba. The chemical composition of each ingredient was determined prior formulation of the rations as shown in table 2. Molasses was first added as a binding ingredient and its valued was calculated as part of the ration input.

.

Table 2 chemical composition% of ingredients used in rations for the rabbits

.

Feed

DM

OM

CP

CF

EE

NFE

ASH

Sorghum grains

92.57

88.77

14.47

2.3

2

70

3.8

Wheat bran

90.78

85.38

16.92

12.5

4

0.13

5.4

Groundnut cake

90.52

79.55

33.30

6.5

4.5

1.44

10.97

Barseem hay

92.70

84.7

13.35

27.18

2.61

41.56

8.8

Molasses

75.36

63.12

3.52

1.5

58.1

12.24

Multi-vitamin

Helba

92.9

89.14

27.397

15.40

4.2

45.903

3.76

Salt

DM: dray matter, OM: Organic matter, CP: crude protein, CF: crude fiber, EE: Ether extract

.

.

Table (3).chemical composition of the rations used in feeding rabbit groups

.

.

.

RATIONS

.

.

IV

III

II

I

Constituents

90.74

91.66

93.67

94.59

Dry matter

86.13

87.2

85.5

85.94

Organic matter

18.51

18.80

18.81

18.08

Crude protein

15.58

15.68

5.8

5.95

Crude fiber

2.79

2.75

3.03

3.07

Ether extract

45.17

45.63

36.73

37.19

Nitrogen free extract

7.85

7.88

5.68

5.71

Ash

.

.

The chemical analysis

.

The feed ingredients and feces were analyzed via proximate analysis as described by AOAC, (2000). The blood samples were determined according to the methods used to measure the concentration of glucose in the blood and ascitic fluid as determined enzymatically by means of a glucose oxidase-peroxidase procedure (Richterich et al., 1962). The blood samples were taken directly from heart in samples of 5 ml for each rabbit of all groups in plastic containers free of anticoagulant and samples were left for 1-2 hours to form the serum. The blood was separated from the serum by centrifugation (3000 cycles/ min) for five minutes. The serum was isolated in sealed containers and kept to the following analysis was performed: Total protein albumin Glucose globulin Glucose and cholesterol total fat (Blauärmel and Krüger 1976). The dry matter digestibility was determined according to the methods described by McDonald et al., (2010) in the total feces collection method.

.

Statistical Analysis

.

The experimental design was a complete randomized design and the data on feed intake, dry matter digestibility, body weight change of the rabbit groups, blood components were statistically analyzed via analysis of variance. The differences among means were detected via Least Significance Difference test (LSD). The Analysis procedure is annexed in appendix.

.

Type of ration and rabbits’ general performance

.

Effect of type of ration on rabbits’ general performance is presented in table 4.1. The results showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in the final body weight among the four rabbit groups after feeding for 8 weeks on the experimental rations, the rabbits reached final weight means of 1438, 1032, 1198 and 1072 g respectively. The results also showed no significant differences (P>0.05) in the overall weight gain at the end of the experimental period for rabbits in all groups. The results also showed no significant differences (P>0.05) among rabbit groups in daily feed intake.

.

.

Table (4).Effect of type of ration on rabbits’ general performance Treatments

.

IV

III

II

I

Parameters studied

5

5

5

5

No. of Animals

8

8

8

8

weeks on trial

354

332

380

360

Initial weight(g)

1.072

1.198

1.320

1.438

Final weight(kg)

0.718

0.868

0.94

1.078

Total weight gain(kg)

49

55

52

53

Dry matter digestibility %

457.14

438.57

367.14

308.57

Feed intake(g/d)

2.9

2.6

2.5

1.5

Feed conversion ratio%

.

.

Table 5. Weekly Body weight change of rabbits as affected by type of ration

.

.

TREATMENTS

WEEKS

     I                            II             III            IV  

Initial

532.00

468.00

416.00

464.00

1

92.000

82.000

70.000

56.000

2

150.00

104.00

98.00

98.00

3

62.000

94.000

42.000

6.000

4

122.00

74.00

64.00

30.00

5

72.00+30.145

116.00+30.145

92.50+33.703

58.00+30.145

6

116.00+40.285

46.00+40.285

112.50+ 45.040

110.00+40.285

7

292.00+40.285

336.00+64.713

320.00+72.351

248.00+64.713

.

Overall

906.00

852.00

694.00

606.00

SE

.

.

.

92.806

.

.

Table 6. Effects of rations type on blood parameters in rabbits

.

.

.

TREATMENTS

.

.

IV

III

II

I

Blood

parameters

3.1100+0.1638

4.8700+0.1831

4.4000+.1831

3.8300+0.16380

Albumin

+ .33 37.747

+76 42.202

44.207+7.635

37.747+6.325

Protein

312.94+39.540

417.63+44.207

307.35+44.207

337.64+0.1638

Lipids

91.18+5.9804

126.07+6.6863

82.53+6.6863

66.88+5.9804

Cholesterol

11.850+13.775

47.495+11.930

95.135+11.930

32.328+10.670

Globulin

.

.

.

DISCUSSION

 

The Feed Intake of Rabbits

.

The results of this study have showed that there were significant differences (P>0.05) among the four groups of rabbits on two different rations with or without helba powder (Trigonella foenum-graecum). The results obtained in this study were similar to those reported by Abonyi et al. (2012). who obtained a significant increase in weight gain and feed conversion ratio when they added 8 g helba/kg feed. They were also similar to the results of the study of Adegobla et al.,( 2002), which recorded a significant increase in weight when giving male and female rabbits extract helba seeds powder at 2500 mg/ kg body weight and the results also did not differ from Adil and Gaisi (2011) who indicated a significant difference in the rates of live weights. The results are in disagreement with the results of another study who did not find any significant differences in body weights Abonyi et al. (2012). The authors showed no significant effect for adding 8 g helba per kilogram feed. Nevertheless the weight of hot and cold carcasses increased and the percentage of dressing percentage. The authors explained those differences to the absence of difference in the productivity traits, despite the presence of increase in live weight and final weight where rabbits gave the first and third treatments higher when the second and fourth treatments were given a diet supplemented by a 1% powder lower weight gain and the feed consumption ratio was higher for the third and fourth treatments of the first and second treatments. The rations with molasses were expected to be preferred by their taste for rabbits. It also reported to improve digestion and contains a high percentage of digestible protein up to 14%. The addition of molasses also lowered ration fiber, increased vitamins and mineral salts especially calcium and phosphorus needed by rabbits. In fact increased feed intake of rabbits is reported being traits of different breeds.

.

.

CONCLUSION                     

.

The results of the study indicated that the type of ration had no effect on feed intake, weight gain and the overall performance of rabbits.

It was observed that molasses and hay diets were consumed insignificantly in high amounts and that could be attributed to their higher nutritional value and were more palatable.

.

Recommendations                    

.

More research in the field of rabbit nutrition, especially rations, ingredients used and different feed of rabbits be carried out to test most suitable rations for the establishment of most suitable and sustainable feeding patterns especially for the small scale production since large farms for raising rabbits are run using commercial technical production packages.

The concept of consumers be changed towards adoption of acceptance of the meat of rabbits its quality and emphasis be stressed on showing the high nutritional importance of this type of meat, making it a basic source of protein

The cost of rabbit meat is low thus consumers’ acceptance and ensuring sustainable feeding and production system will enable producers to benefit from raising rabbit.

Different levels of supplementation with helba and other additives can be tried to improve quality of meat produced.

 

     

                             

C:\Users\AL AMAL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\IMG_20180716_101956.jpg    C:\Users\AL AMAL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\IMG_20180630_094618.jpg

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

.

.

        C:\Users\AL AMAL\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Windows\Temporary Internet Files\Content.Word\IMG_20180612_082655.jpg

.

.

.

REFERENCES

.

Adegbola, T. A. ; Tibi, E. U. ; Asogwa, D. C.,( 1985). Research note: feed intake and digestibility of rabbits on all-forage, forage plus concentrate and all- concentrate diets. J. Anim. Prod. Res., 5: 185-191

Adegobla TA, Okonkwo JC (2002). Nutrient intake, digestibility and growth of rabbits fed varying levels of cassava leaf meal. Nig. J. Anim. Prod. 29(1): 21-26.

Abonyi, F. O. Iyi ,E. O. and Machebe, N. S.(2012). Effects of feeding sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) leaves on growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 11(15), pp. 3709-3712, 21 February, 2012 Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB DOI: 10.5897/AJB11.3103 ISSN 1684–5315 © 2012 Academic Journals.

AOAC (2000). Official Methods of Analysis, 19th Edition AOAC Inter. Inc. Washington, DC Pp 1219.

Blauärmel H and Krüger I.(1976). Quantitative determination of blood-plasma protein fractions using micro-agar gel electrophoresis in highly pregnant dairy cows close to the day of delivery Arch Exp Veterinarmed. 1976;30(6):925-32.

Delgado, C.; Rosegrant, M.; Steinfeld, H.; Ehui, S. and Courbois, C. (1999) . Livestock to 2020: The next food revolution. Food, Agriculture and the Environment Discussion Paper 28.

Le bas F.(1980). Nutritional requirement of rabbits. J.Appl. Rabbit Res. Vol 3 No 2 pp 15

Le bas, F.and Colin, M.;( 1977). Rapeseed oil meal in feeds for growing rabbits. Effect of husking. Ann. Zootech., 26 (1): 93-97

Oyenuga 1982. Problems and prospect of the Nigerian beef industry. Proceedings of National conference on beef production held in Kaduna, July 1982. Pg 58-89.

Richterich, R. and Colombo, J.(1962). Vereinfache enzymatische Bestim mung der Blut– Glucose mit 20 microliter Blut. VII. Mitteilung über Ultramicromethoden im Klinichen Laboratorium. J. Klin. Wochschr.,40: 1208-1211, .

Geohive. (2008). Archived from the original on 2014-08-06. Retrieved August 2014. Check date values in: |accessdate =(help) http://cbs.gov.sd/files/Pop._Proj._by_satates137.pdf

FAO (1986). The rabbit husbandry, health and production. http://www.fao.org/docrep/x5082e/X5082E00.htm

Oyenuga VA (1968). Nigerian Food and Feeding Stuff, The chemistry and nutritive value. Ibadan, University Press. 3rd Edn. pp. 10-31. SAS Institute (1999). SAS/STAT. User’s guide for windows. SAS institute Inc. Cary, NC. USA. p. 8.     

.

   

.

Cite this Article: Jadalla JB; Imam MMM; Kafey SH; Hussein NEK; Tibin MAM (2021). Effect of Ration Type and Addition of Helba (Trigonella foenum-graecum) Powder on Feed intake, dry matter digestibility, Blood Components and weight gain of Rabbits. Greener Journal of Agricultural Sciences 11(3): 151156.

.

.

PDF VIEWER

Loader Loading...
EAD Logo Taking too long?

Reload Reload document
| Open Open in new tab

Download [439.68 KB]

.

 302 total views,  1 views today

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *