By Fondo, KH; Okutoyi, J (2024). Greener Journal of Educational Research, 14(1): 7280.
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Greener Journal of Educational Research Vol. 14(1), pp. 7280, 2024 ISSN: 22767789 Copyright Â©2024, Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International. 

Article’s title & authors
Influence of Curriculum Perspectives on Academic Performance in Mathematics in Schools for Deaf in Kenya.
Fondo Kalama Hassan; Okutoyi Joel
Maseno University, P.O Box 333, Maseno, Kenya.
ARTICLE INFO 
ABSTRACT 
Article No.: 090124107
Type: Research 
Mathematics is one of the three science subjects offered in the 844 system of Education in kenya. However, previous studies have indicated low performance in the subject to learners with hearing impairment in the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E) examination in comparison to other subjects. The underlying cause of such performance in Mathematics by deaf learners had not been brought to surface. For this reason, the purpose of the study was to find out the influence of curriculum perspective on academic performance in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya, in relation to curriculum content, teaching and learning resources, teaching methods and time allocated for the Mathematics curriculum implementation. The study was guided by the constructivist theory. It adopted a descriptive research design. The study analyzed four heads of department, eight teachers of Mathematics and a hundred students taking Mathematics. Data was collected using questionnaires, interview schedules and document analysis. The reliability of the data collection instruments was ensured through reviews done by the experts. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequency counts, percentages and mean. The study findings indicated a mean of (3.153) was used to evaluate the curriculum content and its suitability for the learners, On the availability of teaching and learning resources for the curriculum implementation, the mean of (2.368) was used, in establishing the teaching methods used in Mathematics. a mean of (2.195) was used and in evaluating the time allocated for the implementation of the curriculum, a mean of (2.910) was used. The study recommended on the need of some adaptations on the mathematics curriculum so that it can suit the needs of the learners with hearing impairment, e.g. complex topics must be revised and language used should be made simple for them. There was need of teachers to be involved in designing the mathematics curriculum content for learners with hearing impairments since they understand more on their specials needs which hinder them from accessing the curriculum. There was need of more exposures to mathematical practical sessions for such learners. Learners should be encouraged to be creative during learning and relate mathematics in real life situations. The study recommended on the use of Kenyan Sign language can be of a great importance during evaluation, Language used in the teaching methods should be simple and flexible based on their needs and pace of understanding because rushing for syllabus coverage may result in poor performance. Finally it recommends for more instructional time during evaluation because by allocating more time to them, they are able to finish their work. 
Accepted: 02/09/2024
Published: 05/09/2024 

*Corresponding Author
Fondo Kalama Hassan Email: fondohassan@ hotmail.com 

Keywords: Curriculum perspectives, deaf schools, academic performance, Mathematics. 

BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Designation of a good curriculum and inclusion of appropriate content for learners has been outlined as the main ingredient for the implementation of any successful course (Alshehry, 2014). Previous studies had also found out that both teachers and learners of Mathematics prefer a Mathematics curriculum that is student centered in nature (Ergin, M. Safak, & S.K Ingenc, 2011). However, implementation of such curricula has faced a blow due to factors such as; studentsâ€™ interest in Mathematics, inadequate laboratory facilities, insufficient teaching time and lack of technology in learning. Adaptation of curriculum and teacher qualification have been identified as key determinants of successful implementation of the Mathematics curriculum among deaf learners (Naidoo, 2008; Roald, 2000). Locally, lack of involvement of teachers at all levels of curriculum design has been identified as the main reason as to why the curriculum is not well implemented (Kobiah, 2016).
Science, Mathematics included, is resource intensive. And for proper implementation of its curriculum, enough resources for the subject within school have to be provided (Bassey, 2002). Lack of resources for teaching Mathematics has therefore been identified by previous studies as the main reason for studentsâ€™ poor performance and implementation of the Mathematics curriculum (Maruff and Gbolagade, 2011). Teacher creativity, improvisation and adaptation of local and available teaching and learning materials have thus been identified as the best mitigations to include learners with hearing impairment fully in learning Mathematics (Naidoo, 2008). Laboratories, libraries, textbooks, laboratory equipment, proper infrastructure and ICT are some of the components mentioned in previous studies as key to proper implementation of physic curriculum in schools. In special schools for learners with hearing impairment, availability of welltrained Mathematics teachers in the field of special need education is key to these learnersâ€™ achievement in Mathematics (Mwendwa, 2015).
Teaching methods are what constitutes good teaching (Mtsem, 2011). Open methods of teaching such as discussions, mind mapping, charts, graphical presentations and cartoons in teaching have been suggested as best for bot learners of Mathematics without or without hearing impairment (Roald, 2002; Holubova, 2015). Previous studies have indicated that practical work and integration of ICT in Mathematics curriculum delivery is likely to improve learnersâ€™ achievement in Mathematics (Obafemi Deborah, 2015). On the other hand, lectures as a method of teaching has been discouraged since science is a more practical subject. Learnersâ€™ own discovery has been suggested as best for learners in acquiring skills of Mathematics and any other scientific skills (Owolabi and Oginni 2013).
When learners cover more content within the curriculum, it enhances their chances of better performance in Mathematics. However, the clearing syllabus within the Mathematics curriculum has been difficult as indicated from previous studies. This is attributed to lack of sufficient time as provided by the curriculum for teaching (Ajaja, 2009), (Abamba, 2012). Besides insufficient time, abstract content and difficult content hindering comprehension have been pointed out as additional reasons for luck of syllabus completion for learners with hearing impairment. This translates to a large section of the syllabus uncovered in Mathematics in secondary school for the deaf (Nyokabi, 2011).
For a high school Mathematics to be termed successful, it has to translate to learnersâ€™ achievement in Mathematics. Curriculum content, teaching methodologies, time and teaching and learning equipment is core to a successful implementation of the Mathematics curriculum. However, from previous studies, in the literature reviewed, it is not clear if there are enough signs enough for all Mathematics terms, whether the content within the Mathematics curriculum is appropriate for leaners with hearing impairment locally or not. The state of teaching and learning materials, their availability and condition is not clear for school for the deaf in the Kenya. from the review of literature, it is also not clear whether recommendation from previous studies have been implemented locally, what teaching methods are employed by teachers of Mathematics for the deaf locally and whether there are any inservice training programs for Mathematics teachers in special secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya. With these in view, it is therefore necessary for a study to be done locally to clarify some of these issues and bring into picture the state of the Mathematics curriculum in Kenya into view.
In the current world, every device that surrounds us has science and most of our actions are informed by science. Science has proved to be a solution to majority of our problems. It has been defined as a body of empirical, theoretical and practical knowledge about the natural world produced by consistent and cumulative process which emphasize on observation, explanation and prediction of real world phenomena using experiment (Mishra & B. Yadav, 2013).
(Alshehry 2014) indicated that for any successful and effective implementation of any course in line with the syllabus will always depend on the curriculum which must be well designed.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of curriculum perspectives on academic performance in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya. The objectives to this study were to:evaluate Mathematics curriculum content and its suitability for learners with hearing impairment, identify the availability of teaching and learning resources for Mathematics curriculum implementation, establish the teaching methods used in Mathematics and to evaluate the time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study adopted descriptive statistics research design. The study was carried out in Kisumu County. The target population was the schools for the deaf in Kenya. However, not all the secondary schools offer Mathematics as a subject to KCSE level. Of the many secondary schools for the deaf, one is a boysâ€™ boarding secondary school for deaf, one is a girlsâ€™ boarding secondary school for the deaf and 19 are mixed secondary schools for the deaf. Reliability of the instruments was established through testretest method on 10% of study population using Pearson correlation, reliability was accepted at 0.7 and above. Quantitative data was analyzed in percentages and mean whereas qualitative data was transcribed, analyzed and reported in emergent themes and subthemes.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Evaluate the Mathematics curriculum content and its suitability for learners with hearing impairment in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
This research had a target sample size of 50 respondents from which 40 responded to the questionnaires and returned them. This made a response rate of 80 %. Which was satisfactory to make representative conclusions for the study. According to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003), a response rate of 50 % is adequate for analysis and reporting, a rate of 60% is good and a response rate of 70% and over is excellent. Based on this scale, the response rate was excellent.
From the respondent view on this objective consist of 4 statements to which respondents respond using a fivepoint Likert scale.
Table 4.1.1 Evaluate the Mathematics curriculum content and its suitability for learners with hearing impairment in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
Studentsâ€™ feelings/opinions  Responses (%)  Mean  Std. deviation.  
SA  A  N  D  SD  
Time allocated for mathematics lessons is sufficient for them to understand the concept being taught  12.5  25.0  20.0  20.0  22.5  2.85  1.369 
Mathematics syllabus is usually cleared on time  7.5  7.5  15.5  45.5  25.5  2.28  1.154 
The mathematics syllabus is not well adapted to accommodate their special needs in education  30.0  30.0  15.0  7.5  17.5  3.48  1.450 
Their scores in mathematics can improve if mathematics exams are set in the Kenyan sign language structure.  40.0  40.0  10.0  7.5  2.5  4.0  1.023 
Grand mean  3.15 
Key; SA means strongly agree, A means agrees, N mean neutral or not sure, D means disagree, and SD means strongly disagree.
Findings indicated that their score in mathematics can improve if mathematics exams are set in the Kenyan Sign language structure at a mean of (4.0), the mathematics syllabus is not well adapted to accommodate their special needs in education at a mean of (3.48), the time allocated for mathematics lessons is sufficient for them to understand the concept is at a mean of (2.85) and the mathematics syllabus is usually cleared on time is at a mean of (2.28). The study indicates that at a mean grade of (3.153) of the variables have been used toevaluate the Mathematics curriculum content and its suitability for learners with hearing impairment in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya. This has been associated with increasing test stress, low selfconfidence, fear of failure, and negative attitudes towards learning mathematics (Besant, 1995). This confirms the study done in Norway that Adaptation of curriculum to suit deaf students is key to the achievement in Mathematics by deaf learners. It was found that the Mathematics curriculum was adapted in such a way that its content was reduced and as the language used in curriculum materials made simple, in accordance to what was believed to be the abilities and the educational needs for deaf learners. (Roald I., 2002). Such measures were taken to minimize the barriers hindering access to the curriculum by learners with hearing impairment.
Studies done by (Kobiah 2016) iconfirms the need of teacher involvement in designing the curriculum for learners with hearing impairment so that it can suit the needs of these learners. It also confirms the curriculum was not being presented in a language that was suitable for Deaf learners hence propagating the continued failure of these learners. Other factors such as sociocultural influences, rigid curriculum and poor instructional methods have been attributed to this (Saitoti, 2005, Republic of Kenya, 2005).
Based on the variables were used to get the mean which was used to determine the Mathematics curriculum content and its suitability for learners with hearing impairment in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
Table 4.1.2 Level of Variables
Mean score  Curriculum content. 
1.002.33  Rigid. 
2.343.66  Less rigid. 
3.675.00  Flexible. 
The mean score range was extracted from table 4.1.1 where it was used to determine the suitability of the mathematics curriculum content or the syllabus coverage to learners with hearing impairment.
In relation to the finding for the variables of the respondent, the grand mean was 3.153 which implies the mathematics curriculum and it suitability is less rigid to the learners with hearing impairment in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
A less rigid curriculum content may imply that it may not be suitable to all learners with hearing impairment because of their variance in their needs. A rigid (less) curriculum makes a learner unable to access the curriculum because it has not been modified or rather adapted based on the needs of a learner. The findings confirms with (Kochung, 2003) who found that special curriculum has not been made to accommodate deaf learning. Many teachers assigned to the schools and units have poor fluency in Kenyan Sign Language.
Furthermore, the curriculum was not being presented in a language that was suitable for Deaf learners hence propagating the continued failure of these learners. Other factors such as sociocultural influences, rigid curriculum and poor instructional methods have been attributed to this (Saitoti, 2005; Republic of Kenya, 2005).
4.2 Availability of Teaching and Learning Resources for Mathematics curriculum implementation in schools for the deaf in Kenya.
The attributes for teaching and learning resources for Mathematics curriculum implementation in schools for the deaf in Kenya consists of a set of four (4) statements to which respondents respond using a fivepoint Likert scale. Based on the variables were used to get the mean which was used to determine availability of teaching and learning resources for Mathematics curriculum implementation in schools for the deaf in Kenya using the table below.
Table 4.2.1 availability of teaching and learning resources for Mathematics curriculum implementation in schools for the deaf in Kenya
Key; SA means strongly agree, A means agree, N mean neutral or not sure, D means disagrees and SD means strongly disagree.
From table 4.2.1, findings indicated that on the variable of if there are enough mathematics textbooks for each learner is at a mean of (3.55), The are exposed to enough mathematical practical sessions stand at a mean (2.43), The school laboratory is well equipped for practical lessons in mathematics at a mean of (1.89) and Mathematics having enough equipment and learning materials stands at a mean of (1.60). The availability of teaching and learning resources for mathematics curriculum implementation in schools for the deaf in Kenya has a grand mean of (2.368).
Table 4.2.2 Level of Variables
Mean score  Availability of teaching and learning resources 
1.002.50  Inadequate 
2.515.00  Adequate. 
In relation to the finding for the variables of the respondent the grand mean was 2.368 which imply that there is inadequate availability of teaching and learning resources for the Mathematics curriculum implementation in schools for the deaf in Kenya. The findings made were similar and conquers to those made by the following researchers;
Maruff and Gbolagade, (2011) conducted a study on the instructional material and studentsâ€™â€™ academic achievement in Mathematics. The study examined the effect of using standardized and improvised instructional materials on Academic Achievement of Secondary School Mathematics Students. They attribute the poor performance in Mathematics to lack of available resources. In their study they state that even the little available resources are not in good condition since they are not well maintained and serviced.
4.3 Establish the teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya.
The attributes for establish the teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya consists of a set of four (4) statements to which respondents respond using a fivepoint Likert scale.
Based on the variables were used to get the responds in percentage and mean which was used to determine the teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya using the table below.
Table 4.3.1: Establish the teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya.
Key; SA means strongly agree, A means agree, N mean neutral or not sure, D means disagree, and SD means strongly disagree.
From table 4.3.1 the findings indicated that collection of data of their own and relating it to the environment, and lastly their score can improve if exams are set in the Kenyan sign languagestood at a mean of ( 4.08), a mean of (2.75) of the respondents are being allowed to learn by discovery through practical sessions, a mean of (2.43) of the respondents are being allowed to learn through discovery practical sessions and a mean of (2.40) are encouraged to be creative during learning despite them being exposed to enough mathematics practical sessions Based on the variables were used to get the mean which was used to determine the teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya using the means score of each variable on the table.
Table 4.3.2 Level of Variables
Mean score  Teaching methods used in Mathematics 
1.003.50  Inappropriate 
3.515.50  Appropriate 
This implies the between the mean of 1.00 to 2.5 means that there are inappropriate teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya, and between the mean of 2.51 to 5.00 implies that there is appropriate teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya.
In relation to the finding for the variables of the respondent the grand mean was 2.915 which imply that there are appropriate teaching methods used in Mathematics in schools for the deaf in Kenya. The findings of the current study concurred with findings by the following scholars;
As according to (Mtsem, 2011) Teaching method greatly affects the responses of students and determines whether they are interested, motivated and involved in teaching learning process. What constitutes good teaching and learning of school subjects is the use of appropriate methods of teaching.
In a research conducted in Ghana, Ogunniyi (2009) asserted that one of the most persistent and compelling problems besetting achievement is poor quality of teaching. Harrison (2010) agrees with this and he reports that many school subjects especially Mathematics is not being learnt as it ought to be in because of inappropriate teaching methods.
4.4 Evaluate the time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya
The attributes for evaluation of the time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya consists of a set of four (4) statements to which respondents respond using a fivepoint Likert scale.
Based on the variables were used to get the responds in percentage and mean which was used to determine the time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
Table 4.4.1 Evaluate the time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
Key; SA means strongly agree, A means agree, N mean neutral or not sure, D means disagree, and SD means strongly disagree.
From table 4.4.1 findings indicated that a mean of (4.08) of the respondents score in mathematics can improve if mathematics exams are set in the Kenyan Sign Language structure. The time allocation for mathematics lessons is sufficient for them to understand the concept being taught had a mean of (2.85) of the respondents, a mean of (2.43) said are exposed to enough mathematical practical sessions while a mean of (2.28) said the mathematics syllabus is usually cleared on time and the grand mean for all the variables used in the objective was (2.91) which indicated the evaluation of time indicated towards implementation of the mathematics curriculum and syllabus for the secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
Based on the variables were used to get the mean which was used to evaluate the time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya using the means score of each variable on the table.
Table 4.4.2 Level of Variables
Mean score  Time allocated for mathematics 
1.003.00  Inappropriate 
3.005.00 
Appropriate 
This implies the between the mean of 1.00 to 2.50 means that there is inappropriate time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya, and between the mean of 2.51 to 5.00 implies that there is appropriate time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya.
In relation to the finding for the variables of the respondent the grand mean was 2.915 which implies that there is appropriate time allocated for the implementation of Mathematics curriculum and syllabus in secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya hence the method is good for learning mathematics. The above findings we supported by follow researchers and scholars and they found out that;
Studies done about learners with hearing impairment have discovered insufficient time, wide syllabus, and abstract content within the syllabus as barriers to completion of syllabus in time. For instance, Mukangu (2008) conducted a study on teaching methods, learning resource and utilization strategies by teachers and learners to identify instructional resources and their pedagogical constraints to teaching social studies at Kerugoya School for the deaf. The study targeted a population of 160 respondents and sample size of 88 respondents. From his study, he finds out that the time allocated for syllabus coverage to teachers of the deaf is not sufficient to cover the entire syllabus. His findings agree with those in a research done by (Nyokabi, 2011) in four secondary schools for the deaf in Kenya on curriculum factors influencing the performance of deaf students in mathematics, which found out that 90% of teachers in these schools never clear the syllabus on time while only 10% made it on time. This was attributed to; some difficult topics as perceived by learners, difficult topics as posted by teachers, the learning speed of the learners which implied that teachers had to dwell long than required to cover some of these topics.
Nyokabi, 2011 also found out Topics that were abstract, involved a lot application, required visualization and used specific language that required comprehension and correct interpretation were reported as difficult. From these findings, (Nyokabi, 2011) recommends a revision and simplification of the language used in textbooks and examinations meant for deaf students. More instructional time for deaf learners is also suggested to improve performance of mathematics among deaf high school learners.
CONCLUSION
The study reveals that the current mathematics curriculum presents significant challenges for learners who are deaf. The rigid structure, abstract nature of certain topics, and lack of sufficient visual aids make it difficult for these learners to fully grasp mathematical concepts. Furthermore, the inadequate time allocated for curriculum evaluation and syllabus coverage hampers the ability of learners to perform well in mathematics.
Additionally, the limited exposure to practical mathematical sessions reduces opportunities for handson learning, further affecting comprehension and application. The research also indicates that the teaching methods employed do not sufficiently encourage creativity, critical thinking, or the application of mathematical concepts to reallife scenarios, which are crucial for improving academic performance.
Overall, the curriculum’s limitations, coupled with insufficient resources, teaching strategies, and time, negatively impact the academic performance of learners with hearing impairments in mathematics. Addressing these challenges would require a more flexible, inclusive curriculum and pedagogical approaches tailored to meet the unique needs of these learners.
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Cite this Article:Fondo, KH; Okutoyi, J (2024). Influence of Curriculum Perspectives on Academic Performance in Mathematics in Schools for Deaf in Kenya. Greener Journal of Educational Research, 14(1): 7280. 
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